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园林废弃物生态覆盖垫的制备及其水分特性

曲炳鹏 孙向阳 李素艳 张骅 王心语 熊凯毅 贠炳辉

曲炳鹏, 孙向阳, 李素艳, 张骅, 王心语, 熊凯毅, 贠炳辉. 园林废弃物生态覆盖垫的制备及其水分特性[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2018, 40(10): 77-85. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170465
引用本文: 曲炳鹏, 孙向阳, 李素艳, 张骅, 王心语, 熊凯毅, 贠炳辉. 园林废弃物生态覆盖垫的制备及其水分特性[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2018, 40(10): 77-85. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170465
Qu Bingpeng, Sun Xiangyang, Li Suyan, Zhang Hua, Wang Xinyu, Xiong Kaiyi, Yun Binghui. Manufacturing process and hydrological characteristics of ecological mulching mats made from green waste[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2018, 40(10): 77-85. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170465
Citation: Qu Bingpeng, Sun Xiangyang, Li Suyan, Zhang Hua, Wang Xinyu, Xiong Kaiyi, Yun Binghui. Manufacturing process and hydrological characteristics of ecological mulching mats made from green waste[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2018, 40(10): 77-85. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170465

园林废弃物生态覆盖垫的制备及其水分特性

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170465
基金项目: 

林业公益性行业科研专项 201504205

北京市科技计划项目 Z161100001316004

详细信息
    作者简介:

    曲炳鹏,博士生。主要研究方向:土壤生态。Email:qubingpeng@163.com  地址:100083北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学林学院

    责任作者:

    孙向阳,教授,博士生导师。主要研究方向:土壤生态。Email:sunxy@bjfu.edu.cn  地址:同上

    李素艳,副教授。主要研究方向:土壤生态。Email:lisuyan@bjfu.edu.cn  地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S715.7;X72

Manufacturing process and hydrological characteristics of ecological mulching mats made from green waste

  • 摘要: 目的以园林废弃物为原料制备生态覆盖垫,用于覆盖城市绿地裸露土壤,从而提高园林绿化水分利用效率,减少城市水土流失,探索出园林废弃物替代木材原料资源化利用的新途径。方法以两种粒径(小粒径0~1 cm和大粒径1~3 cm)的园林废弃物为原料,使用环保型水性聚氨酯作为胶黏剂,选择5个施胶量(分别占园林废弃物质量的20%、25%、30%、35%和40%),通过模具压制的方法制备覆盖城市裸露土壤用的生态覆盖垫,并研究其基本性质、保水效果、透水能力和持水能力,选取最佳施胶量。结果结果表明:随着施胶量的增加,生态覆盖垫的密度偏差和吸水厚度膨胀率逐渐增大,但当施胶量达到40%时,吸水厚度膨胀率减小。随着施胶量的增加,生态覆盖垫的保水效果均逐渐增强,小粒径原料制备的生态覆盖垫保水效果整体好于大粒径原料制备的生态覆盖垫。而在透水能力方面,小粒径原料制备的生态覆盖垫施胶量不高于30%时,透水能力较好;大粒径原料制备的生态覆盖垫透水能力则不受施胶量影响。生态覆盖垫的持水量与浸泡时间均存在着显著的对数函数关系,吸水速率与浸泡时间呈显著的幂函数关系,小粒径和大粒径原料制备的生态覆盖垫的持水能力分别在施胶量达30%和35%时达到最强。结论综合分析,小粒径原料制备的生态覆盖垫施胶量30%较为合适,对于大粒径原料制备的生态覆盖垫,则优选35%的施胶量,小粒径和大粒径原料制备的生态覆盖垫分别更适用于覆盖干旱地区的裸露土壤和降雨较多地区的裸露土壤。

     

  • 图  1  生态覆盖垫的保水效果

    Figure  1.  Water holding capacity of ecological mulching mats

    图  2  生态覆盖垫的透水能力

    不同小写字母表示不同处理之间差异显著(P < 0.05)。

    Figure  2.  Water permeability of ecological mulching mats

    Different lowercase letters mean significant difference among different treatments at P < 0.05 level.

    图  3  生态覆盖垫的持水量变化

    Figure  3.  Changes in water holding capacity of ecological mulching mats

    图  4  生态覆盖垫吸水速率变化

    Figure  4.  Changes in water absorption rate of ecological mulching mats

    表  1  生态覆盖垫的基本性质

    Table  1.   Basic properties of ecological mulching mats

    粒径
    Particle size
    施胶量
    Adhesive proportion/%
    目标密度
    Target density/(g·cm-3)
    平均密度
    Average density/(g·cm-3)
    偏差
    Deviation/%
    平均厚度
    Average thickness/cm
    泡水厚度
    Soak thickness/cm
    吸水厚度膨胀率
    Expansion rate of water absorbing thickness/%
    小Small
    (0-1 cm)
    20 0.240 0 0.237 9±0.005 6 0.89±2.32 4.67±0.11 4.98±0.16 6.61±4.01
    25 0.250 0 0.238 5±0.008 6 4.60±3.85 4.68±0.10 5.01±0.04 7.08±1.47
    30 0.260 0 0.245 8±0.007 4 5.46±2.81 4.72±0.06 5.06±0.03 7.15±1.82
    35 0.270 0 0.250 7±0.009 2 7.16±3.57 4.78±0.07 5.15±0.04 7.69±1.31
    40 0.280 0 0.231 1±0.005 4 17.45±2.97 5.23±0.06 5.39±0.06 3.19±0.50
    大Big
    (1-3 cm)
    20 0.240 0 0.232 3±0.005 1 3.19±2.12 4.98±0.13 5.13±0.03 3.07±2.32
    25 0.250 0 0.242 7±0.004 0 2.94±1.64 4.93±0.05 5.12±0.08 3.71±1.12
    30 0.260 0 0.245 7±0.005 8 5.51±2.63 4.96±0.04 5.13±0.01 3.44±0.86
    35 0.270 0 0.245 8±0.009 2 8.96±3.92 4.96±0.12 5.27±0.04 6.32±3.14
    40 0.280 0 0.241 4±0.004 6 13.78±3.09 5.07±0.04 5.28±0.09 4.16±2.37
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同生态覆盖垫持水量、吸水速率与浸泡关系

    Table  2.   Correlations between water holding capacity, water absorption rate and immersion time of varied ecological mulching mats

    粒径
    Particle size
    施胶量
    Adhesive proportion/%
    持水量与浸泡关系式
    Equation between water holding capacity and immersion time
    吸水速率与浸泡关系式
    Equation between water absorption rate and immersion time
    小Small
    (0-1 cm)
    20 Q=161.9ln(t)+831.6, R2=0.94 V=803.3t-0.82, R2=0.97
    25 Q=197.3ln(t)+911.3, R2=0.93 V=869.1t-0.80, R2=0.95
    30 Q=237.3ln(t)+987.5, R2=0.97 V=934.5t-0.78, R2=0.98
    35 Q=215.5ln(t)+968.3, R2=0.97 V=924.9t-0.79, R2=0.99
    40 Q=159.3ln(t)+718.2, R2=0.95 V=677.7t-0.79, R2=0.96
    大Big
    (1-3 cm)
    20 Q=113.7ln(t)+446.8, R2=0.99 V=423.1t-0.77, R2=0.99
    25 Q=113.2ln(t)+486.7, R2=0.99 V=465.5t-0.79, R2=0.99
    30 Q=133.3ln(t)+516.7, R2=0.99 V=493.6t-0.77, R2=0.99
    35 Q=141.6ln(t)+516.7, R2=0.99 V=488.7t-0.76, R2=0.99
    40 Q=127.6ln(t)+485.2, R2=0.99 V=462.3t-0.77, R2=0.99
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  生态覆盖垫的最大持水能力及有效拦蓄能力

    Table  3.   Maximum water holding capacity and effective interception capacity of ecological mulching mats

    粒径
    Particle size
    施胶量
    Adhesive proportion/%
    最大持水量/(t·hm-2)
    Maximum amount of water holding capacity/(t·ha-1)
    最大持水率
    Maximum water holding rate/%
    有效拦蓄量/(t·hm-2)
    Effective interception amount/(t·ha-1)
    有效拦蓄率
    Effective interception rate/%
    小Small
    (0-1 cm)
    20 140.49 126.47 113.86 102.50
    25 159.02 142.48 129.59 116.10
    30 187.64 161.62 153.69 132.38
    35 186.19 155.39 152.27 127.08
    40 142.21 117.71 114.84 95.05
    大Big
    (1-3 cm)
    20 92.75 80.21 73.05 63.18
    25 102.12 85.31 80.82 67.51
    30 111.84 91.85 88.98 73.07
    35 115.38 94.57 91.97 75.38
    40 109.38 89.36 86.85 70.96
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2017-12-25
  • 修回日期:  2018-01-30
  • 刊出日期:  2018-10-01

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