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福建三明2000—2011年森林火灾PM2.5排放量的估算

王坚 刘晓东

王坚, 刘晓东. 福建三明2000—2011年森林火灾PM2.5排放量的估算[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2018, 40(6): 41-47. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180075
引用本文: 王坚, 刘晓东. 福建三明2000—2011年森林火灾PM2.5排放量的估算[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2018, 40(6): 41-47. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180075
Wang Jian, Liu Xiaodong. Estimation of PM2.5 emissions from forest fires in Fujian Sanming City of southern China during 2000-2011[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2018, 40(6): 41-47. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180075
Citation: Wang Jian, Liu Xiaodong. Estimation of PM2.5 emissions from forest fires in Fujian Sanming City of southern China during 2000-2011[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2018, 40(6): 41-47. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180075

福建三明2000—2011年森林火灾PM2.5排放量的估算

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180075
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 31770696

国家重点研发计划课题 2017YFD0600106-1

详细信息
    作者简介:

    王坚。主要研究方向:生态学。Email:wjj93@bjfu.edu.cn 地址:100083 北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学林学院

    责任作者:

    刘晓东,副教授。主要研究方向:生态学。Email:xd-liu@bjfu.edu.cn 地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S762.1

Estimation of PM2.5 emissions from forest fires in Fujian Sanming City of southern China during 2000-2011

  • 摘要: 目的福建三明地区属于森林火灾多发地区, 森林火险等级较高, 森林火灾在燃烧过程中释放大量可吸入颗粒物(PM2.5), 不仅对大气环境造成污染, 还会对人类的身体健康造成不良影响, 因此, 研究福建三明地区森林火灾PM2.5排放量具有重要意义。方法本文基于福建省三明市2000—2011年森林火灾数据, 采用蓄积量-生物量模型计算林火过程消耗生物量, 其中, 森林损失蓄积量和过火面积数据由当地防火部门提供。运用排放因子法计算得出PM2.5排放量, 各林型PM2.5排放因子由历年文献统计得出。针对福建三明地区4种主要林型:马尾松林、杉木林、阔叶混交林和针阔混交林对森林火灾中PM2.5排放量分别进行估算, 为该地区森林火灾污染物排放研究提供依据。结果结果表明, 福建三明地区2000—2011年间森林火灾PM2.5估算总排放量为458.789~2958.339t。其中杉木林燃烧PM2.5排放量估算为217.117~1072.489t, 阔叶混交林, 马尾松林, 针阔混交林PM2.5估算排放量分别为94.123~903.154t、93.379~478.634t、54.169~504.063t。结论综合分析, 按不同森林火灾等级分析, 由于重大火灾和较大火灾发生次数较多, PM2.5排放主要集中在重大火灾和较大火灾; 按不同森林类型分析, PM2.5排放主要集中在杉木林和阔叶混交林两种林型, 杉木林和阔叶混交林由于其地上生物量相对丰富, 且易发生森林火灾, 是今后重点抚育管理对象, 相关部门应在防火期到来之前做好修枝抚育间伐工作。

     

  • 图  1  不同森林类型不同火强度下损失的生物量

    Figure  1.  Biomass loss of different forest types under varied fire intensities

    图  2  不同森林类型不同火烧等级下PM2.5排放量

    Figure  2.  PM2.5 emission under different fire size classes for varied forest types

    表  1  森林类型蓄积量-生物量模型参数

    Table  1.   Model parameters between volume and biomass of forest type

    森林类型Forest type BEF (Biomass expansion factor)
    杉木林Cunninghamia lanceolata forest BEF=2.4381 Age-0.3293(R2=0.746)
    马尾松林Pinus massoniana forest BEF=0.9267 Age-0.1317(R2=0.447)
    针阔混交林Coniferous and broadleaved mixed forest a=0.8019, b=12.2799
    阔叶混交林Mixed broadleaved forest BEF=2.5887 Age-0.1821(R2=0.746)
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同林型各器官生物量分配比

    Table  2.   Biomass allocation of various organs for different forest types

    %
    森林类型Forest type 生物量分配Biomass allocation
    干Trunk 枝Branch 叶Leaf
    马尾松林Pinus massoniana forest 73.2 16.3 4.5
    杉木Cunninghamia lanceolata forest 67.0 11.0 9.2
    针阔混交林Coniferous and broadleaved mixed forest 60.7~70.0 14.4~18.4 6.3~10.1
    阔叶混交林Mixed broadleaved forest 65.4~72.9 12.3~19.8 7.5~11.4
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  乔木在不同等级森林火灾中各器官燃烧效率

    Table  3.   Combustion efficiency of each tree organs under different fire size classes

    %
    树木器官Tree organ 一般火灾General fire 较大火灾Larger fire 重大火灾Disastrous fire 特大火灾Serious fire
    树枝Branch 14.1~25.0 29.8~65.0 37.3~85.0 53.7~100
    树叶Leaf 22.5~32.5 64.0~89.5 89.5~95.5 95.5~100
    树干Trunk 21.6~25.0 39.8~65.0 54.8~85.0 61.2~100
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  不同林型林火PM2.5排放因子

    Table  4.   PM2.5 emission factor of different forest type fire

    g·kg-1
    森林类型Forest type PM2.5 参考文献Reference
    马尾松林、杉木林Pinus massoniana forest and Cunninghamia lanceolate forest 6.89±3.61 [15, 16, 24, 25]
    阔叶混交林Mixed broadleaved forest 9.10±6.10 [15, 16, 26, 25]
    针阔混交林Coniferous and broadleaved mixed forest 8.48±5.41 [15, 16, 27]
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2018-03-05
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