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降雨过程中不同密度枯落物对各土层含水率动态影响

陈佩岩 马岚 梅雪梅 张栋 薛孟君 孙一惠

陈佩岩, 马岚, 梅雪梅, 张栋, 薛孟君, 孙一惠. 降雨过程中不同密度枯落物对各土层含水率动态影响[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2018, 40(11): 93-101. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180078
引用本文: 陈佩岩, 马岚, 梅雪梅, 张栋, 薛孟君, 孙一惠. 降雨过程中不同密度枯落物对各土层含水率动态影响[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2018, 40(11): 93-101. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180078
Chen Peiyan, Ma Lan, Mei Xuemei, Zhang Dong, Xue Mengjun, Sun Yihui. Dynamic influence of different density litter on moisture content in each soil layer during rainfall process[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2018, 40(11): 93-101. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180078
Citation: Chen Peiyan, Ma Lan, Mei Xuemei, Zhang Dong, Xue Mengjun, Sun Yihui. Dynamic influence of different density litter on moisture content in each soil layer during rainfall process[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2018, 40(11): 93-101. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180078

降雨过程中不同密度枯落物对各土层含水率动态影响

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180078
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 51779004

国家重点研发计划 2016YFC0501704

详细信息
    作者简介:

    陈佩岩。主要研究方向:生态水文与土壤侵蚀。Email:3082677509@qq.com 地址:100083北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学水土保持学院

    责任作者:

    马岚,副教授。主要研究方向:生态水文与土壤侵蚀。Email:mlpcz@sina.com 地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S714.7

Dynamic influence of different density litter on moisture content in each soil layer during rainfall process

  • 摘要: 目的以晋西黄土区典型油松林及刺槐林为研究对象, 对其枯落物层和土壤层水文效应进行初步研究,以期为该区建设水源涵养林及水土保持林提供一定的借鉴依据。方法分别选取对应林分3种密度枯落物后进行野外人工降雨,并对其覆盖下0~20 cm、20~40 cm、40~60 cm、60~80 cm、80~100 cm、100~120 cm 6个土层含水量实时监测。结果(1) 在同一雨量级别下,当枯落物覆盖密度增加时,其在降雨过程中的截留量以及枯落物最终达到饱和截留量的时间也随之增加;此外,随着降雨试验的进行,截留率随之减小,且其随枯落物的密度增加而升高。(2)降雨过程中,随着枯落物密度的增加,两种林地上层土壤(0~60 cm)的含水率均呈现逐渐减小的趋势;其中0~20 cm土层含水率对降雨的响应最为直接和迅速,而20~40 cm与40~60 cm土层的土壤含水率变化有一定的滞后和延长,较深层(60~120 cm土层)土壤含水率对降雨过程几乎无响应过程。(3)降雨结束后,各深度土层的含水率均表现出随时间的持续缓慢减小;降雨结束24 h内,裸地及各密度枯落物覆盖下的土壤含水量最高均出现在0~20 cm层;当入渗48 h后,裸地土壤含水量最高则出现在20~40 cm土层,但是对于有枯落物覆盖的土壤,0~20 cm土层含水率在降雨结束48 h内始终最高,并且随着密度的增加其随时间延续而减小的幅度越小。结论截留量、截留率与降雨历时(降雨量)均符合幂函数关系(R2>0.9);在降雨前后及过程中,不同密度枯落物对其覆盖下的土壤含水率有较大影响;不同深度土层含水率对降雨响应差异显著。

     

  • 图  1  降雨过程中不同密度油松枯落物截留量及截留率

    Figure  1.  Interception and interception rate by different densities of Pinus tabuliformis litter during rainfall process

    图  2  降雨过程中不同密度刺槐枯落物截留量及截留率

    Figure  2.  Interception and interception rate for different densities of Robinia pseudoacacia litter during rainfall process

    图  3  降雨过程中不同密度油松枯落物下各土层体积含水率

    D1、D2、D3、D4、D5、D6分别表示0~20 cm、20~40 cm、40~60 cm、60~80 cm、80~100 cm、100~120 cm土层含水率。下同。

    Figure  3.  Volatile water content of each soil layer under different densities of Pinus tabuliformis litter during rainfall process

    D1, D2, D3, D4, D5 and D6 represent the volatile water content of 0-20 cm, 20-40 cm, 40-60 cm, 60-80 cm, 80-100 cm and 100-120 cm, respectively. The same below.

    图  4  降雨过程中不同密度刺槐枯落物下各土层体积含水率

    Figure  4.  Volatile water content of each soil layer under different densities of R. pseudoacacia litter during rainfall process

    图  5  降雨结束48 h内油松林地各土层含水率变化

    K1、K2、K3、K4、K5分别表示0、300、500和700 g/m2枯落物覆盖下的土层含水率。

    Figure  5.  Variations of soil moisture content in different soil layers in Pinus tabuliformis forestland within 48 hours after the end of rainfall

    K1, K2, K3, K4, and K5 represent soil moisture content of soil layers covered with litter of 0, 300, 500 and 700 g/m2, respectively.

    图  6  降雨结束48 h内刺槐林地各土层含水率变化

    M1、M2、M3、M4、M5分别表示0、100、300和500 g/m2枯落物覆盖下的土层含水率。

    Figure  6.  Variations of soil moisture content in different soil layers in Robinia pseudoacacia forestland within 48 hours after the end of rainfall

    M1, M2, M3, M4, and M5 represent soil moisture content of soil layers covered with litter of 0, 100, 300 and 500 g/m2, respectively.

    表  1  调查样地基本特征

    Table  1.   Basic characteristics of sample sites

    林分
    Forest
    立地因子Site factor 郁闭度
    Canopy closure/%
    叶面积指数
    Leaf area index
    蓄积量/(t·hm-2)
    Stand volume/(t·ha-1)
    海拔
    Altitude/m
    坡向
    Slope aspect
    坡度
    Slope degree/(°)
    油松Pinus tabuliformis 1 176 阳坡Sunny slope 14 0.85 5~7 3~7
    刺槐Robinia pseudoacacia 1 168 阴坡Shady slope 18 0.80 3~5 1~5
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  降雨结束时不同密度枯落物截留情况

    Table  2.   Interception condition for litter of different densities at the end of rainfall

    枯落物类型
    Litter type
    枯落物密度
    Litter density/(g·m-2)
    总截留量
    Total interception amount/mm
    单位质量截留量
    Interception of unit mass/(mm·kg-1·m-2)
    截留率
    Rate of interception/%
    300 8.5 28.3 14.2
    油松Pinus tabuliformis 500 10.1 33.7 16.8
    700 16.7 55.7 27.8
    100 4.5 45.0 7.5
    刺槐Robinia pseudoacacia 300 7.7 25.7 12.8
    500 9.7 19.4 16.2
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同密度枯落物截留量及截留率与降雨量关系

    Table  3.   Relationship of interception as well as interception rate and rainfall by different densities of litter

    枯落物类型
    Litter type
    枯落物密度
    Litter density/(g·m-2)
    截留量与降雨量函数关系
    Functional relationship between interception and rainfall
    截留率与降雨量函数关系
    Functional relationship between interception rate and rainfall
    300 y=0.355 1x0.765 1(R2=0.98) y=35.51x-0.235(R2=0.94)
    油松Pinus tabuliformis 500 y=0.566 6x0.704 8(R2=0.96) y=56.66x-0.295(R2=0.98)
    700 y=0.647 9x0.780 7(R2=0.98) y=64.78x-0.219(R2=0.92)
    100 y=0.384 8x0.626 3(R2=0.96) y=38.48x-0.374(R2=0.91)
    刺槐Robinia pseudoacacia 300 y=0.391 8x0.797 8(R2=0.98) y=39.18x-0.202(R2=0.97)
    500 y=0.430 3x0.759 2(R2=0.98) y=43.02x-0.241(R2=0.94)
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  油松、刺槐林地各土层体积含水率

    Table  4.   Volatile water content of each soil layer in the forest of Pinus tabuliformis and Robinia pseudoacacia

    林地类型Forest type 0~20 cm 20~40 cm 40~60 cm 60~80 cm 80~100 cm 100~120 cm
    油松Pinus tabuliformis 9.7 11.2 10.8 9.4 8.1 7.5
    刺槐Robinia pseudoacacia 8.1 8.4 7.5 7.2 6.3 5.7
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  降雨结束时不同密度枯落物土壤含水率

    Table  5.   Soil moisture content of different density litter at the end of rainfall

    %
    林种
    Forest species
    枯落物密度
    Litter density/(g·m-2)
    土层深度Soil depth
    0~20 cm 20~40 cm 40~60 cm 60~80 cm 80~100 cm 100~120 cm
    油松Pinus tabuliformis 0 22a 20.6a 15.7a 9.8a 8.2a 7.5a
    300 19.5b 18.1b 13.5b 9.8a 8.2a 7.5a
    500 17.9c 16.3c 12.4c 9.6b 8.1a 7.5a
    700 14.8d 13.7d 11.9d 9.6b 8b 7.4b
    刺槐Robinia pseudoacacia 0 19.4a 17.8a 15.6a 7.8a 6.4a 5.7a
    100 18.1b 16.8a 14.8b 7.8a 6.3b 5.6b
    300 16.7c 14.5c 13.3c 7.7b 6.33ab 5.7a
    500 14.4d 13.8d 11.5d 7.4c 6.33ab 5.7a
    注:同列不同小写字母表示差异显著(P < 0.05)。Note: different lowercase in the same column mean significant difference at P < 0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2018-03-12
  • 修回日期:  2018-03-28
  • 刊出日期:  2018-11-01

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