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晋西黄土区降雨过程对小流域产流的影响

杨云斌 张建军 李梁 孙若修 张海博 张佳楠

杨云斌, 张建军, 李梁, 孙若修, 张海博, 张佳楠. 晋西黄土区降雨过程对小流域产流的影响[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2019, 41(3): 105-114. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180104
引用本文: 杨云斌, 张建军, 李梁, 孙若修, 张海博, 张佳楠. 晋西黄土区降雨过程对小流域产流的影响[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2019, 41(3): 105-114. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180104
Yang Yunbin, Zhang Jianjun, Li Liang, Sun Ruoxiu, Zhang Haibo, Zhang Jianan. Effects of rainfall process on runoff in small watersheds in the Loess Plateau of western Shanxi Province, northern China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2019, 41(3): 105-114. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180104
Citation: Yang Yunbin, Zhang Jianjun, Li Liang, Sun Ruoxiu, Zhang Haibo, Zhang Jianan. Effects of rainfall process on runoff in small watersheds in the Loess Plateau of western Shanxi Province, northern China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2019, 41(3): 105-114. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180104

晋西黄土区降雨过程对小流域产流的影响

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180104
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0501704)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    杨云斌。主要研究方向:水土保持与森林水文。Email:m15176768899@163.com 地址:100083 北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学水土保持学院

    责任作者:

    张建军,教授,博士生导师。主要研究方向:水土保持与森林水文。Email:zhangjianjun@bjfu.edu.cn 地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S157.1

Effects of rainfall process on runoff in small watersheds in the Loess Plateau of western Shanxi Province, northern China

  • 摘要: 目的探究降雨过程(雨型)对小流域产流过程的影响,为小流域尺度上产汇流分析提供依据。方法以山西吉县森林生态系统国家野外科学观测研究站的蔡家川小流域为研究对象,利用蔡家川小流域2007—2017年场降雨径流数据,根据雨量在降雨过程中集中的位置进行雨型划分,并采用LSD多重比较法分析不同雨型的特征,在不同土地利用类型的小流域尺度上探究雨型特征与产流的响应关系。结果(1)蔡家川流域的降雨可划分为前期型降雨(I型)、中期型降雨(Ⅱ型)、后期型降雨(Ⅲ型)和均匀型降雨(Ⅳ型)。Ⅰ型降雨为短历时强降雨,是主要降雨雨型,占总降雨频次的44.6%,平均雨量为24.6 mm,降雨侵蚀力最强,集中分布在6—8月;Ⅳ型降雨为长历时小雨强降雨,平均历时716 min,平均雨量为17.84 mm,降雨侵蚀力最弱,多出现在雨季的前期(5月份)和后期(9月份);Ⅱ型和Ⅲ型降雨的特征介于Ⅰ型和Ⅳ型降雨之间,多发生在6—8月,降雨量和频次相对均衡。(2)不同雨型条件下小流域的径流深、洪峰流量排序为:Ⅰ型降雨 > Ⅲ型降雨 > Ⅱ型降雨 > Ⅳ型降雨,洪峰滞后时间排序为:Ⅳ型降雨 > Ⅱ型降雨 > Ⅲ型降雨 > Ⅰ型降雨。(3)Ⅰ型、Ⅲ型降雨条件下农地小流域的径流深和洪峰流量高于封禁小流域,Ⅱ型和Ⅳ型降雨条件下封禁小流域的径流深和洪峰流量略高于农地小流域,封禁小流域的洪峰出现时间均滞后于农地小流域。(4)降雨量和历时对农地小流域产流的影响更大,雨强分布对封禁小流域产流的影响更大。结论不同雨型的降雨特征差异性显著,Ⅰ型降雨是引起小流域产流的主要雨型,大雨量强降雨更易造成流域的水土流失;封禁小流域削减径流、延长洪峰出现时间的作用显著,尤其对大雨量强降雨的调节作用更明显;在晋西黄土区降雨量、降雨历时和降雨过程中的雨强分布是影响小流域产流过程的重要因素。

     

  • 图  1  研究流域及观测设施示意图

    Figure  1.  Schematic diagram of research watersheds and observation facilities

    图  2  量水堰剖面示意图

    Figure  2.  Schematic diagram of section plane of the weirs

    图  3  不同雨型量纲−累积降雨量历时曲线

    Figure  3.  Dimensionless accumulative rainfall-duration curves for different rainfall patterns

    图  4  不同雨型量纲−时段降雨量随降雨历时变化关系

    Figure  4.  Dimensionless intensity-duration relationship for different rainfall patterns

    图  5  不同月份各雨型累积降雨量及降雨频次比例

    Figure  5.  Cumulative rainfall and frequency ratio of different rainfall patterns in different months

    图  6  不同雨型累积降雨量和累积径流量所占比例

    Figure  6.  Proportion of cumulative rainfall and cumulative runoff under different rainfall patterns

    表  1  研究流域基本情况

    Table  1.   Basic information of studied small watersheds

    流域类型
    Watershed type
    流域土地利用类型
    Land use of watershed
    森林覆盖率
    Forest cover rate/%
    流域面积
    Watershed area/km2
    流域长度
    Watershed length/km
    形状系数
    Shape factor
    河网密度
    River density/
    (km·km− 2)
    沟道比降
    Channel gradient/%
    农地小流域
    Agricultural small watershed
    以水平梯田为主
    Based on the terraced fields
    15.20.711.382.541.818.70
    封禁小流域
    Closed small watershed
    以次生植被为主
    Mainly secondary vegetation
    991.933.004.404.108.40
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同雨型的降雨特征

    Table  2.   Rainfall characteristics of different rainfall patterns

    雨型
    Rainfall
    pattern
    降雨量
    Precipitation/mm
    降雨历时
    Rainfall
    duration/min
    平均雨强
    Average rainfall intensity/(mm·h− 1)
    I10/
    (mm·h− 1)
    I30/
    (mm·h− 1)
    I60/
    (mm·h− 1)
    PI10频次
    Frequency
    占总频次比例
    Proportion in total frequency/%
    24.60a440.00a7.23a31.36a20.16a12.93a1 038.863344.6
    19.42a428.33a6.72a26.13a16.87a10.73a591.321013.5
    22.23a586.25a4.43b17.18b11.54b7.02b470.791520.3
    17.84a715.94b1.88c5.96c4.59c3.85c117.831621.6
    注:同一列不同字母表示特征值差异性显著(P < 0.05)。I10. 最大10 min雨强;I30. 最大30 min雨强;I60. 最大60 min雨强。下同。Notes: different small letters in the same column mean significant difference(P < 0.05). I10, maximum 10 minutes rainfall intensity; I30, maximum 30 minutes rainfall intensity; I60, maximum 60 minutes rainfall intensity. The same below.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同雨型条件下农地小流域和封禁小流域产流特征

    Table  3.   Runoff characteristics of the agricultural small watershed and the closed small watershed under different rainfall patterns

    小流域
    Small watershed
    雨型
    Rainfall pattern
    径流量
    Runoff/m3
    基流量
    Base flow/m3
    径流深
    Depth of runoff/mm
    洪峰流量/(L·s− 1·hm− 2)
    Peak discharge/(L·s− 1·ha− 1)
    洪峰滞后时间
    Peak lag time/h
    农地小流域
    Agricultural small watershed
    1 384.8958.151.869 43.283 20.676
    88.3730.740.081 20.074 91.123
    361.82138.980.314 00.323 70.958
    108.0353.760.076 50.034 82.211
    封禁小流域
    Closed small watershed
    720.17154.700.292 60.171 91.116
    229.4442.940.096 50.033 91.748
    787.77447.870.175 90.129 91.640
    256.0274.520.093 90.033 13.243
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  农地小流域降雨−径流相关性统计

    Table  4.   Rainfall-runoff correlation statistics for the agricultural small watershed

    项目 Item雨型
    Rainfall pattern
    降雨量
    Precipitation
    平均雨强
    Average rainfall intensity
    降雨历时
    Rainfall duration
    I10I30I60
    径流深
    Depth of runoff
    0.793**0.1760.0900.686**0.805**0.813**
    0.392− 0.3600.214− 0.321− 0.291− 0.271
    0.146− 0.3920.494− 0.198− 0.0310.017
    0.962**− 0.2780.959**− 0.0220.0030.041
    洪峰流量
    Peak discharge
    0.768**0.236− 0.0210.727**0.863**0.890**
    − 0.1750.121− 0.5830.1240.2390.252
    0.111− 0.3990.451− 0.156− 0.0340.002
    0.4270.3470.2550.3630.4500.524
    洪峰滞后时间
    Peak lag time
    − 0.148− 0.735**0.681**0.3260.2160.179
    0.353− 0.2930.957**− 0.293− 0.434− 0.360
    − 0.683*− 0.263− 0.738*− 0.015− 0.396− 0.388
    − 0.501− 0.328− 0.289− 0.474− 0.477− 0.509
    注:*表示在0.05水平上相关性显著;**表示在0.01水平上相关性显著。下同。Notes: * indicates significant correlation at 0.05 level; ** indicates significant correlation at 0.01 level. The same below.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  封禁小流域降雨−径流相关性统计

    Table  5.   Rainfall-runoff correlation statistics for the closed small watershed

    项目
    Item
    雨型
    Rainfall pattern
    降雨量
    Precipitation
    平均雨强
    Average rainfall intensity
    降雨历时
    Duration of rainfall
    I10I30I60
    径流深
    Depth of runoff
    0.734**− 0.0810.2960.2650.3680.371
    0.002− 0.3990.092− 0.525− 0.449− 0.309
    0.571− 0.4760.852*− 0.556− 0.448− 0.274
    0.885**0.0090.842**0.3810.3390.373
    洪峰流量
    Peak discharge
    0.673**0.1700.0360.581*0.714**0.687**
    − 0.6430.760− 0.6870.6350.1900.320
    0.480− 0.3640.607− 0.184− 0.0600.212
    0.763**0.3510.5740.650*0.604*0.602*
    洪峰滞后时间
    Peak lag time
    − 0.2510.295− 0.452− 0.578*− 0.391− 0.389
    − 0.943**− 0.4410.974**− 0.728− 0.731− 0.811
    − 0.824*0.632− 0.802*− 0.843*− 0.746− 0.604
    − 0.428− 0.340− 0.169− 0.484− 0.441− 0.352
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2018-03-29
  • 修回日期:  2018-07-03
  • 网络出版日期:  2019-03-28
  • 刊出日期:  2019-03-01

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