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喀斯特森林植被自然恢复过程中土壤化学计量特征

吴鹏 崔迎春 赵文君 舒德远 侯贻菊 丁访军 杨文斌

吴鹏, 崔迎春, 赵文君, 舒德远, 侯贻菊, 丁访军, 杨文斌. 喀斯特森林植被自然恢复过程中土壤化学计量特征[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2019, 41(3): 80-92. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180136
引用本文: 吴鹏, 崔迎春, 赵文君, 舒德远, 侯贻菊, 丁访军, 杨文斌. 喀斯特森林植被自然恢复过程中土壤化学计量特征[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2019, 41(3): 80-92. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180136
Wu Peng, Cui Yingchun, Zhao Wenjun, Shu Deyuan, Hou Yiju, Ding Fangjun, Yang Wenbin. Characteristics of soil stoichiometric in natural restoration process of Maolan karst forest vegetation, southwestern China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2019, 41(3): 80-92. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180136
Citation: Wu Peng, Cui Yingchun, Zhao Wenjun, Shu Deyuan, Hou Yiju, Ding Fangjun, Yang Wenbin. Characteristics of soil stoichiometric in natural restoration process of Maolan karst forest vegetation, southwestern China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2019, 41(3): 80-92. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180136

喀斯特森林植被自然恢复过程中土壤化学计量特征

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180136
基金项目: 贵州省社会发展科技攻关计划项目(黔科合SY字〔2014〕3039号),贵州省科技厅基金项目(黔科合基础〔2018〕1096),贵州省林业厅优秀青年人才培养专项资金项目(黔林科合J字〔2015〕14号),贵州省林业科学研究院2017年度学术新苗培养及创新探索专项(黔科合平台人才〔2017〕5793)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    吴鹏,博士,副研究员。主要研究方向:森林生态。Email:zuishaoxu@163.com 地址:550005贵州省贵阳市南明区富源南路382号贵州省林业科学研究院

    责任作者:

    丁访军,博士,研究员。主要研究方向:森林生态。Email:ding3920034@163.com 地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S714.5

Characteristics of soil stoichiometric in natural restoration process of Maolan karst forest vegetation, southwestern China

  • 摘要: 目的研究茂兰喀斯特森林植被自然恢复过程中不同演替阶段土壤养分与化学计量的动态变化规律,探讨两者间的相互关系,定量评价各影响因子对其的解释程度,阐明群落演替与土壤性状演变间的内在耦合关系,旨在为该区域植被的恢复与重建提供理论依据。方法以草本群落、灌木灌丛群落、乔林群落和顶极常绿落叶阔叶混交林群落等演替阶段为研究对象,每个演替阶段各设置3个固定样地,样地内根据不同小生境随机布设12个土壤剖面,分层取样,测定土壤有机碳(SOC)、全氮(TN)、全磷(TP)和全钾(TK)含量,并计算其化学计量比。结果研究区土壤的SOC、TN、TP和TK含量均值分别为54.72、4.67、0.73和8.53 g/kg,且SOC、TP和TN含量相互间均存在显著或极显著正相关,表现出相对一致的变化规律;C:N、C:P、C:K、N:P、N:K和P:K分别为11.95、79.16、6.50、6.64、0.550 1和0.085 2;从变异系数来看,除TK含量和C:N属弱变异性以外,其余土壤养分含量及化学计量比均属中等变异性。随植被的正向演替,不同演替阶段的SOC、TN和TP含量基本上均呈上升趋势,而TK含量则呈倒“V”字型变化,表现为:乔林阶段 > 顶极阶段 > 灌木灌丛阶段 > 草本阶段;各演替阶段不同土层深度的SOC、TN和TP含量均表现为0 ~ 10 cm要高于10 ~ 20 cm,而TK含量则无明显变化。土壤化学计量特征随演替的进展其变化趋势差异较大;在土壤剖面层次上,各演替阶段除C:N不同土层深度间无显著差异以外,其余也均表现为0 ~ 10 cm要高于10 ~ 20 cm。冗余分析结果表明,土层深度和群落演替是调控该区域土壤养分含量和化学计量特征的主要因素,对其解释程度分别为32.82%和32.19%。结论研究区土壤有机碳含量相对较高,氮、磷养分含量丰富,植物生长受氮(或磷)素限制的原因可能是土壤养分含量的有效性偏低所致;减少人为干扰、加之适当的保护,促进群落的正向演替,提高喀斯特森林生态系统的稳定性和抗干扰性,有利于土壤养分的积累;研究初步揭示了众多影响因子对土壤养分含量和化学计量特征的解释程度,对喀斯特森林的保护具有重要的指导意义。

     

  • 图  1  样地点位置图

    Figure  1.  Location of the sample plots

    图  2  不同演替阶段土壤有机碳、全氮、全磷和全钾含量

    数据为“平均值 ± 标准差”;不同小写字母的表示同一土层深度不同演替阶段间差异显著(P < 0.05);不同大写字母的表示同一演替阶段不同土层深度间差异显著(P < 0.05)。下同。The values are “mean ± SD”. Different lowercase indicates significant differences between different successional stages of the same soil depth (P < 0.05), and different capital letters indicate significant differences between different soil depths of the same successional stage (P < 0.05). The same below.

    Figure  2.  Contents of soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total potassium in the soils for different successional stages

    图  3  不同演替阶段各土层土壤的C:N、C:P、C:K、N:P、N:K和P:K

    Figure  3.  Ratios of C:N, C:P, C:K, N:P, N:K and P:K of the various soil layers at different successional stages

    图  4  群落演替、土层深度、群落多样性指数等与土壤化学计量特征的RDA排序

    数字1 ~ 23分别代表土层深度、群落演替、凋落物现存量、物种丰富度Margalef指数、生态优势度Simpson指数、信息多样性Shannon-Wiener指数、均匀度Pielou指数、比叶面积、土壤pH值、土壤密度、土壤体积含水量、土壤非毛管孔隙度、土壤毛管孔隙度、植物叶片C、N、P、K含量、凋落物的C、N、P、K含量和N、P重吸收率。1−23 are the abbreviation of soil depth, community succession, biomass of forest litter, Margalef index, Simpson index, Shannon-Wiener index, Pielou index, specific leaf area, soil pH value, soil bulk density, soil volumetric water content, soil non-capillary porosity, soil capillary porosity, the content of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of leaves, the content of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of litter, nitrogen and phosphorus resorption rate, respectively.

    Figure  4.  RDA ordination of community succession, soil depth, community diversity indices and soil stoichiometric characteristics

    表  1  样地基本概况

    Table  1.   Basic situation of sample plots

    演替阶段
    Successional stage
    样地号
    Plot No.
    海拔
    Altitude/m
    坡度 Slope
    degree/(°)
    坡位
    Slope position
    裸岩率
    Bare rock ratio/%
    优势种
    Dominant species
    土壤
    Soil
    HS262625 ~ 30中坡 Middle slope65马唐 Digitaria sanguinalis
    白茅 Imperata cylindrical
    Pteridium aquilinum
    芒草 Miscanthus sp.
    石灰土Calcareous soil
    1070625 ~ 30中坡 Middle slope55
    1169220 ~ 25中坡 Middle slope75
    SS778925 ~ 30中坡 Middle slope85瓜木 Alangium platanifolium
    火棘 Pyracantha fortuneana
    南天竹 Nandina domestica
    香叶树 Lindera communis
    青篱柴 Tirpitzia sinensis
    石灰土Calcareous soil
    877520 ~ 25中坡 Middle slope85
    1277925 ~ 30中坡 Middle slope80
    AS177020 ~ 25下坡 Lower slope75卵果海桐 Pittosporum lenticellatum
    圆果化香 Platycarya longipes
    木姜润楠 Machilus litseifolia
    光皮梾木 Cornus wilsoniana
    香叶树 Lindera communis
    牛耳枫 Ficus microcarpa
    石灰土Calcareous soil
    380020 ~ 25中坡 Middle slope70
    676920 ~ 25下坡 Lower slope80
    CS474130 ~ 35中坡 Middle slope75多脉青岗 Cyclobalanopsis multinervis
    云贵鹅耳枥 Carpinus pubescens
    粗柄楠 Phoebe crassipedicella
    光皮梾木 Cornus wilsoniana
    丝栗栲 castanopsis fargesii
    天峨槭 Acer wangchii
    石灰土Calcareous soil
    574430 ~ 35下坡 Lower slope85
    977915 ~ 20下坡 Lower slope80
    注:HS、SS、AS和CS分别为草本阶段、灌木灌丛阶段、乔林阶段和顶极阶段。下同。 Notes: HS, SS, AS and CS represent herb stage, shrub stage, arbor stage and climax stage, respectively. The same below.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  土壤养分与化学计量特征的统计分析表

    Table  2.   Statistical analysis of soil nutrients and stoichiometric characteristics

    指标
    Index
    样本数
    Sample number
    最大值
    Max./(g·kg− 1)
    最小值
    Min./(g·kg− 1)
    平均值
    Mean/(g·kg− 1)
    标准差
    SD/(g·kg− 1)
    偏度系数
    Skewness coefficient
    峰度系数
    Kurtosis coefficient
    变异系数
    CV/%
    SOC2482.4528.6154.7214.120.35− 0.4425.80
    TN247.832.254.671.410.68− 0.2230.28
    TP241.080.360.730.22− 0.27− 0.9530.12
    TK2410.825.168.531.47− 0.470.1717.21
    C:N2415.379.7611.951.620.40− 0.5913.59
    C:P24130.4140.3579.1620.130.650.8625.43
    C:K2410.093.896.501.630.44− 0.4525.12
    N:P249.633.906.641.480.50− 0.3722.37
    N:K240.857 10.339 50.550 10.142 60.47− 0.5025.92
    P:K240.118 80.041 50.085 20.021 6− 0.35− 0.5425.38
    注:CV ≤ 20.0%属弱变异性,20.0% < CV < 50.0%属中等变异性,CV ≥ 50.0%属强变异性。Notes: CV ≤ 20.0%, weak variability; 20.0% < CV < 50.0%, medium variability; CV ≥ 50.0%, strong variability.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  土壤养分与化学计量特征的相关分析

    Table  3.   Correlation analysis between soil nutrients and soil stoichiometric characteristics

    土层深度
    Soil depth/cm
    指标
    Index
    对数转换 Log transformation ln(x + 1)
    SOCTNTPTKC:NC:PC:KN:PN:KP:K
    0 ~ 10ln(SOC + 1)1.0000.877**0.854**0.529   −    −    − − 0.3480.720**0.700*
    ln(TN + 1)1.0000.916**0.676*− 0.670*0.2650.658*
    ln(TP + 1)1.0000.544− 0.610*0.3730.749**
    ln(TK + 1)1.000− 0.593*− 0.3800.014
    10 ~ 20ln(SOC + 1)1.0000.795**0.666*0.661*− 0.2060.2990.360
    ln(TN + 1)1.0000.739**0.597*− 0.3780.1950.494
    ln(TP + 1)1.0000.585*− 0.3240.0640.303
    ln(TK + 1)1.000− 0.120− 0.293− 0.238
    0 ~ 20ln(SOC + 1)1.0000.875**0.839**0.656*− 0.4100.4950.593*
    ln(TN + 1)1.0000.867**0.672*− 0.629*0.1770.607*
    ln(TP + 1)1.0000.576*− 0.5030.2560.558
    ln(TK + 1)1.000− 0.395− 0.365− 0.166
    注:*相关性显著(P < 0.05),**相关性极显著(P < 0.01),− 表示存在自相关关系,不宜进行相关分析。 Notes: * and ** indicate significant correlations at the 0.05 and 0.01 probability levels, respectively. − indicates that autocorrelation exists and no analysis is conducted.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  RDA排序前2轴的基本特征

    Table  4.   General characteristics of the first two axis of RDA ordination

    参数 Parameter第1轴 Axis 1第2轴 Axis 2
    特征值 Eigenvalue0.4770.317
    化学计量特征−影响因子相关系数 Stoichiometry-impact factors correlation0.9920.975
    化学计量数据累计解释量 Cumulative percentage variance of stoichiometry/%47.7079.50
    化学计量特征−影响因子关系累计解释量 Cumulative percentage variance of stoichiometry-impact relation/%49.4082.20
    土层深度 Soil depth0.7230.434
    群落演替 Community succession− 0.5700.676
    凋落物现存量 Biomass of forest litter0.337− 0.429
    物种丰富度Margalef指数 Species richness Margalef index (R)− 0.3690.582
    生态优势度Simpson指数 Ecological dominance Simpson index (D)− 0.2960.508
    信息多样性Shannon-Wiener指数 Information diversity Shannon-Wiener index (H)− 0.3590.553
    均匀度Pielou指数 Evenness Pielou index (J)− 0.2870.480
    比叶面积 Specific leaf area0.395− 0.556
    土壤pH值 Soil pH value− 0.1400.437
    土壤密度 Soil bulk density0.788− 0.128
    土壤体积含水量 Soil volumetric water content− 0.5420.098
    土壤非毛管孔隙度 Soil non-capillary porosity− 0.483− 0.029
    土壤毛管孔隙度 Soil capillary porosity− 0.5570.138
    植物叶片C含量 Plant leaf carbon content0.358− 0.587
    植物叶片N含量 Plant leaf nitrogen content0.0260.102
    植物叶片P含量 Plant leaf phosphorus content0.219− 0.265
    植物叶片K含量 Plant leaf potassium content0.396− 0.607
    凋落物C含量 Litter carbon content0.312− 0.249
    凋落物N含量 Litter nitrogen content− 0.4100.700
    凋落物P含量 Litter phosphorus content− 0.0900.303
    凋落物K含量 Litter potassium content− 0.2800.629
    N重吸收率 N resorption rate0.441− 0.696
    P重吸收率 P resorption rate0.421− 0.721
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  群落演替、土层深度、群落多样性指数等对土壤化学计量特征的解释程度

    Table  5.   Interpretation degree of soil stoichiometric characteristics in community succession, soil depth, community diversity indices

    影响因子 Impact factor重要性排序
    Importance sequencing
    解释程度
    Interpretive degree/%
    FP
    土层深度 Soil depth132.8210.2150.002
    群落演替 Community succession232.2017.5780.002
    凋落物现存量 Biomass of forest litter121.041.6330.240
    物种丰富度 Margalef 指数 Species richness Margalef index (R)111.141.4920.214
    生态优势度 Simpson 指数 Ecological dominance Simpson index (D)91.452.0580.128
    均匀度 Pielou 指数 Evenness Pielou index (J)101.352.2390.120
    比叶面积 Specific leaf area55.074.4880.012
    土壤 pH 值 Soil pH value160.730.9820.324
    土壤密度 Soil bulk density170.410.7100.550
    土壤体积含水量 Soil volumetric water content150.831.5220.224
    土壤非毛管孔隙度 Soil non-capillary porosity63.834.0200.014
    土壤毛管孔隙度 Soil capillary porosity130.931.2110.324
    植物叶片 N 含量 Plant leaf nitrogen content72.282.6050.066
    植物叶片 P 含量 Plant leaf phosphorus content140.831.0310.378
    凋落物 C 含量 Litter carbon content45.804.3880.010
    凋落物 N 含量 Litter nitrogen content81.862.2340.114
    凋落物 K 含量 Litter potassium content37.454.7510.006
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2018-04-19
  • 修回日期:  2018-06-05
  • 网络出版日期:  2019-03-01
  • 刊出日期:  2019-03-01

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