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不同树种多层透明木材的制备与表征

秦建鲲 白天 邵亚丽 赵鑫 李帅 胡英成

秦建鲲, 白天, 邵亚丽, 赵鑫, 李帅, 胡英成. 不同树种多层透明木材的制备与表征[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2018, 40(7): 113-120. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180137
引用本文: 秦建鲲, 白天, 邵亚丽, 赵鑫, 李帅, 胡英成. 不同树种多层透明木材的制备与表征[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2018, 40(7): 113-120. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180137
Qin Jiankun, Bai Tian, Shao Yali, Zhao Xin, Li Shuai, Hu Yingcheng. Fabrication and characterization of multilayer transparent wood of different species[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2018, 40(7): 113-120. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180137
Citation: Qin Jiankun, Bai Tian, Shao Yali, Zhao Xin, Li Shuai, Hu Yingcheng. Fabrication and characterization of multilayer transparent wood of different species[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2018, 40(7): 113-120. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180137

不同树种多层透明木材的制备与表征

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180137
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 31470581

中央高校基本科研业务费 2572016EBJ1

详细信息
    作者简介:

    秦建鲲。主要研究方向:木质复合材料。Email: 1509813443@qq.com 地址:150040黑龙江省哈尔滨市和兴路26号东北林业大学材料科学与工程学院

    责任作者:

    胡英成,教授,博士生导师。主要研究方向:生物质材料性能研究。Email: yingchenghu@nefu.edu.cn 地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: TS653.3

Fabrication and characterization of multilayer transparent wood of different species

  • 摘要: 目的多层透明木材是真空下层压的透明木材。在保持良好透过率的情况下,这种方法将会极大降低透明木材的各向异性。方法本研究选取了3种密度不同但较为常见的树种——0.21 g/cm3的巴尔沙木、0.33 g/cm3的泡桐木和0.49 g/cm3的白椴木为模板制作透明木材,测试其透过率和拉伸性能。并采用层合多层薄木片的方法,制作了最大厚度达10 mm的透明木材。层合时采用同向层合和交错层合两种不同的层合方式,对比了相同厚度的单层木片与多层木片的透过率,以及横纹和顺纹方向的力学性能。结果树种不同,制备透明木材的工艺也不同。巴尔沙木密度最小,内部含有较多的孔隙,较易脱木质素和浸渍树脂。泡桐木中抽提成份较多,达8.9%,因此首先需要去除抽提物,打开闭塞的纹孔,提高渗透性。白椴木密度较大,脱木质素较困难,但拉伸性能最好。除了树种的影响外,厚度对透明木材的透过率影响也很大,木片越厚木质素越难去除,因此透过率也就越低。而采用层合的方法有效降低了去除木质素的难度。对比两种层合方式,同向层合制作的透明木材透过率与单层透明木片相似,而异向层合时透过率低于单层透明木片。但异向层合对消除透明木材横纹与顺纹方向的力学性能差异有明显的效果。结论本研究拓宽了制备透明木材树种的选择范围,并使制备高厚度低成本的透明木材成为可能。

     

  • 图  1  层合透明木材的制备过程示意图

    Figure  1.  Diagram of multilayer transparent wood fabrication

    图  2  弦切面扫描电镜图

    Figure  2.  SEM of tangential surface

    图  3  横切面扫描电镜图

    Figure  3.  SEM of transverse section

    图  4  1~6 h脱木素处理透明巴尔沙木透过率

    Figure  4.  Transparent balsa wood transmission curves under 1-6 hours delignification

    图  5  不同巴尔沙木拉伸极限测试

    单层原巴尔沙木Single layer original balsa wood (OBW);单层透明巴尔沙木Single layer transparent balsa wood (SLTBW);同向层合透明巴尔沙木Same direction multilayer transparent balsa wood (SMTBW);交错层合透明巴尔沙木Cross direction multilayer transparent balsa wood (CMTBW)。

    Figure  5.  Stretch limit test of different balsa woods

    图  6  单层与多层透明巴尔沙木透过率曲线

    Figure  6.  Transmittance curves of single layer and multilayer transparent balsa wood

    图  7  单层与多层透明泡桐木透过率曲线

    单层透明泡桐木Single layer transparent paulownia wood (SLTPW);同向层合透明泡桐木Same direction multilayer transparent paulownia wood (SMTPW);交错层合透明泡桐木Cross direction multilayer transparent paulownia wood (CMTPW)。

    Figure  7.  Transmittance curves of single-layer and multi-layer transparent paulownia wood

    图  8  单层与双层透明泡桐木拉伸性能对比图

    Figure  8.  Comparison of tensile properties of single-layer and double-layer transparent paulownia wood

    图  9  单层与多层透明白椴木透过率曲线

    单层透明白椴木Single layer transparent basswood (SLTB);同向层合透明白椴木Same direction multilayer transparent basswood (SMTB);交错层合透明白椴木Cross direction multilayer transparent basswood (CMTB)。

    Figure  9.  Transmittance curves of single-layer and multilayer transparent basswood

    图  10  单层与多层透明白椴木拉伸性能对比图

    Figure  10.  Comparison of tensile properties of single-layer and multilayer transparent basswood

    图  11  3种密度透明木材的透过率曲线和顺向拉伸强度图

    Figure  11.  Transmittance curves and longitudinal stretch strength column of three tree species with different densitiesq

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  • 收稿日期:  2018-04-19
  • 修回日期:  2018-05-16
  • 刊出日期:  2018-07-01

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