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贵州赤水桫椤国家级自然保护区植物群落特征

刘钦 邓洪平 李宗峰 梁盛 李丘霖 倪东萍

刘钦, 邓洪平, 李宗峰, 梁盛, 李丘霖, 倪东萍. 贵州赤水桫椤国家级自然保护区植物群落特征[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2019, 41(1): 19-31. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180165
引用本文: 刘钦, 邓洪平, 李宗峰, 梁盛, 李丘霖, 倪东萍. 贵州赤水桫椤国家级自然保护区植物群落特征[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2019, 41(1): 19-31. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180165
Liu Qin, Deng Hongping, Li Zongfeng, Liang Sheng, Li Qiulin, Ni Dongping. Characteristics of plant community in the Guizhou Chishui Alsophila spinulata National Nature Reserve, southwestern China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2019, 41(1): 19-31. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180165
Citation: Liu Qin, Deng Hongping, Li Zongfeng, Liang Sheng, Li Qiulin, Ni Dongping. Characteristics of plant community in the Guizhou Chishui Alsophila spinulata National Nature Reserve, southwestern China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2019, 41(1): 19-31. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180165

贵州赤水桫椤国家级自然保护区植物群落特征

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180165
基金项目: 

环保部生物多样性保护及监测项目“赤水桫椤国家级自然保护区生物多样性野外监测示范” 2015

科技部国家科技基础平台国家标本平台-教学标本子平台运行服务资助项目 2005DKA21403-JK

详细信息
    作者简介:

    刘钦。主要研究方向:植物系统进化与保护生物学。Email:liuqinyou211@163.com  地址:400715重庆市北碚区天生路2号西南大学生命科学学院

    责任作者:

    邓洪平,教授,博士生导师。主要研究方向:植物系统进化与保护生物学。Email:denghp@swu.edu.cn  地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S759.94

Characteristics of plant community in the Guizhou Chishui Alsophila spinulata National Nature Reserve, southwestern China

  • 摘要: 目的本研究以贵州赤水桫椤国家级自然保护区为研究地,通过分析比较不同植物群落特征,为有效地保护珍稀濒危植物以及典型的中亚热带常绿阔叶林森林生态系统提供科学依据。方法在研究区建立73个样地,通过样方调查,从物种组成、区系特征、生活型及群落结构等方面对植物群落特征进行分析。结果结果表明:(1)研究区内共计维管植物91科180属251种,其中蕨类植物16科21属25种,重要值前3位的物种分别为芭蕉、毛竹和桫椤。(2)群落种子植物区系成分以热带为主,包含一定比例的温带成分;生活型以小高位芽植物为主,1年生植物最少。(3)群落垂直结构可分为乔木层、亚乔木层、灌木层和草本层4个层次,高层建群种主要为毛竹、杉木、亮叶桦和川钓樟等,中层主要为芭蕉、粗糠柴、罗伞和脚骨脆等,低层主要为柃木、红果黄肉楠和金珠柳等;桫椤平均高度为3.58 m,在灌木层中优势地位明显,年龄结构稳定。(4)乔木层植物胸径以2~8 cm为主,灌木层以<3 cm为主;平均胸径>9 cm的物种主要有芭蕉、杉木、亮叶桦和桫椤等,平均胸径<5 cm的物种有柃木、红果黄肉楠和金珠柳等;桫椤径级结构合理,平均胸径为12.20 cm。(5)73个调查样方被聚为14类,分属于10个群系,分别为毛竹林、芭蕉灌草丛、桫椤-芭蕉-罗伞灌草丛、马尾松林、楠木林、杉木林、亮叶桦林、枫香-四川大头茶混交林、楠木-灯台树-毛脉南酸枣林和灯台树林;各群落植物多样性和均匀度随海拔升高而增加,桫椤-芭蕉-罗伞灌草丛径级分布最不均匀。结论保护区不同群落植物多样性和结构差异明显;海拔是影响群落空间分布的主要环境因子,较高海拔区多为山地常绿落叶阔叶混交林和典型阔叶林,群落稳定性较高;沟谷低海拔区域多为南亚热带常绿阔叶灌草丛,以芭蕉和毛竹为代表的优势种突出,群落物种组成和结构单一,是桫椤种群的主要生长环境,其生境范围相对狭窄。

     

  • 图  1  物种在各样方重要值热图

    Figure  1.  Heat map of species importance value in every quadrats

    图  2  群落生活型谱

    MSP.中高位芽;MIP.小高位芽;NP.矮高位芽;P.高位芽;C.地上芽;H.地面芽;G.地下芽;T.1年生;Ⅰ.热带雨林;Ⅱ.中亚热带常绿阔叶林;Ⅲ.北亚热带常绿、落叶阔叶林;Ⅳ.大雪山常绿阔叶林;Ⅴ.暖温带落叶林。

    Figure  2.  Life-form spectra in community

    MSP is mesophanerophytes; P is phanerophyte; MIP is microphanerophytes; NP is nanophanerophytes; P is phanerophyte; C is chamaephytes; H is hemicryptophytes; G is geophytes; T is therophytes; Ⅰ, hylaea; Ⅱ, mid-subtropical-broadleaved evergreen forest; Ⅲ, north subtropical evergreen, deciduous broadleaved forest; Ⅳ, big snow mountain evergreen broadleaved forest; Ⅴ, warm temperate deciduous forest.

    图  3  轮廓宽度和Matel相关分析图

    Figure  3.  Profile width value and Matel related analysis chart

    图  4  重排后14分组聚类树

    Figure  4.  Cluster tree after rearrangement

    图  5  不同类型群落丰富度、均匀度和多样性指数比较

    Figure  5.  Comparison in richness, evenness and diversity index of different community types

    图  6  不同群落高度和径级结构比较

    Figure  6.  Comparison of height and DBH of different communities

    表  1  保护区植被类型

    Table  1.   Vegetation types of reserve

    植被型
    Vegetation type
    植被亚型
    Vegetation subtype
    群系类型
    Group type
    竹林 Bamboo forest暖性竹林 Warm bamboo forest毛竹林 Form. P. pubescens
    灌草丛 Shrub-meadow暖性灌草丛 Warm shrub-meadow桫椤-芭蕉-罗伞灌草丛 Form. A. spinulosa-
    M. basjoo- Brassaiopsis glomerulata shrub-
    meadow
    常绿阔叶灌丛 Evergreen broadleaved shrubs典型常绿阔叶灌丛 Typical evergreen
    broadleaved shrubs
    竹叶榕灌草丛 Form. F. stenophylla
    常绿、落叶阔叶混交林 Mixed evergreen and deciduous broadleaved forest山地常绿、落叶阔叶混交林 Mountain
    evergreen, deciduous broadleaved mixed forest
    枫香-四川大头茶混交林 Form. L. formosana-
    G. acuminata
    暖性针叶林 Warm coniferous forests暖性常绿针叶林 Warm evergreen coniferous forests马尾松林 Form. P. massoniana
    落叶阔叶林 Deciduous broadleaved forest山地杨桦林 Mountain birch forest亮叶桦林 Form. B. luminifera
    常绿阔叶林 Evergreen broadleaved forest典型常绿阔叶林 Typical evergreen
    broadleaved forest
    润楠-桢楠林、栲树林 Form. Machilus pingii-
    Phoebe zhennan and Castanopsis fargesii
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  群落物种组成

    Table  2.   Species composition in community

    类别 Type
    Family
    比例
    Rate/%

    Genus
    比例
    Rate/%

    Species
    比例
    Rate/%
    蕨类植物 Fern1617.582111.67259.96
    裸子植物 Gymnosperm22.2021.1120.80
    被子植物 Angiosperm单子叶植物 Monocotyledonous88.791810.00218.37
    双子叶植物 Dicotyledonous6571.4313977.2220380.88
    合计 Total91100180100251100
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  植物群落重要值前50物种

    Table  3.   Top 50 species in importance value of plant community

    序号
    No.
    物种
    Species
    相对频度
    Relative
    frequency
    相对显著度
    Relative
    significance
    相对密度
    Relative
    density
    重要值
    Importance
    value
    1芭蕉 Musa basjoo (MB)0.100 20.166 80.100 20.122 4
    2毛竹 Phyllostachys pubescens (PP)0.101 10.079 80.101 10.094 0
    3桫椤 Alsophila spinulosa (AS)0.025 00.136 50.025 00.062 2
    4柃木 Eurya japonica (EJ)0.048 40.028 40.048 40.041 7
    5粗糠柴 Mallotus philippensis (MP)0.042 40.038 40.042 40.041 0
    6光皮梾木 Swida wilsoniana (SW)0.051 70.018 90.051 70.040 8
    7粗叶木 Lasianthus chinensis (LC)0.030 90.027 20.030 90.029 7
    8杉木 Cunninghamia lanceolata (CL)0.031 20.025 60.031 20.029 3
    9罗伞 Brassaiopsis glomerulata (BG)0.026 20.021 40.026 20.024 6
    10赤杨叶 Alniphyllum fortunei (AF)0.026 50.014 20.026 50.022 4
    11水麻 Debregeasia orientalis (DO)0.011 70.040 20.011 70.021 2
    12毛桐 Mallotus barbatus (MA)0.020 70.019 20.020 70.020 2
    13毛脉南酸枣 Choerospondias axillaris var. pubinervis (CA)0.006 50.045 50.006 50.019 5
    14楠木 Phoebe zhennan (PZ)0.011 80.028 90.011 80.017 5
    15亮叶桦 Betula luminifera (BL)0.017 60.015 60.017 60.016 9
    16红果黄肉楠 Actinodaphne cupularis (AC)0.017 20.011 60.017 20.015 3
    17川钓樟 Lindera pulcherrima var. hemsleyana (LP)0.012 50.016 90.012 50.013 9
    18脚骨脆 Casearia balansae (CB)0.013 20.010 70.013 20.012 4
    19山矾 Symplocos sumuntia (SS)0.013 60.008 10.013 60.011 8
    20金珠柳 Maesa montana (MM)0.013 60.007 00.013 60.011 4
    21马尾松 Pinus massoniana (PM)0.006 40.020 30.006 40.011 0
    22盐肤木 Rhus chinensis (RC)0.012 70.006 80.012 70.010 7
    23茜树 Aidia cochinchinensis (AI)0.011 20.008 50.011 20.010 3
    24毛叶木姜子 Litsea mollis (LM)0.011 70.006 70.011 70.010 0
    25山茶 Camellia japonica (CJ)0.011 80.005 50.011 80.009 7
    26栲 Castanopsis fargesii (CF)0.006 00.016 80.006 00.009 6
    27罗浮柿 Diospyros morrisiana (DM)0.011 60.005 30.011 60.009 5
    28油桐 Vernicia fordii (VF)0.010 50.006 80.010 50.009 3
    29杜鹃 Rhododendron simsii (RS)0.009 40.008 20.009 40.009 0
    30糙叶榕 Ficus irisana (FI)0.008 10.009 80.008 10.008 7
    31灯台树 Bothrocaryum controversum (BC)0.008 20.008 80.008 20.008 4
    32木姜子 Litsea pungens (LI)0.009 40.006 40.009 40.008 4
    33穗序鹅掌柴 Schefflera delavayi (SD)0.006 00.009 10.006 00.007 1
    34白栎 Quercus fabri (QF)0.007 10.004 90.007 10.006 4
    35黄杞 Engelhardtia roxburghiana (ER)0.007 40.003 90.007 40.006 3
    36楼梯草 Elatostema involucratum (EI)0.009 00.000 50.009 00.006 2
    37四川大头茶 Gordonia acuminata (GA)0.005 90.003 80.005 90.005 2
    38樟 Cinnamomum camphora (CC)0.003 70.007 30.003 70.004 9
    39黄牛奶树 Symplocos laurina (SL)0.002 60.008 80.002 60.004 7
    40枫香树 Liquidambar formosana (LF)0.005 00.003 70.005 00.004 6
    41艳山姜 Alpinia zerumbet (AZ)0.005 80.001 20.005 80.004 3
    42里白 Hicriopteris glauca (HG)0.005 50.000 60.005 50.003 9
    43红盖鳞毛蕨 Dryopteris erythrosora (DE)0.005 50.000 40.005 50.003 8
    44圆苞金足草 Goldfussia pentstemonoides (GP)0.005 30.000 40.005 30.003 7
    45竹叶榕 Ficus stenophylla (FS)0.004 00.002 30.004 00.003 4
    46卷柏 Selaginella tamariscina (ST)0.004 90.000 20.004 90.003 3
    47灯笼花 Agapetes lacei (AL)0.003 00.003 70.003 00.003 2
    48竹叶草 Oplismenus compositus (OC)0.004 60.000 30.004 60.003 2
    49线柱苣苔 Rhynchotechum obovatum (RO)0.004 10.000 80.004 10.003 0
    50翠云草 Selaginella uncinata (SU)0.004 50.000 10.004 50.003 0
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  赤水保护区群落植物区系分析

    Table  4.   Plant distribution types in community of Chishui Reserve

    分布区类型
    Areal type
    科数
    Family
    number
    占非世界科总数比例
    Percentage in total non-
    cosmopolitan family/%
    属数
    Genus
    number
    占非世界属总数比例
    Percentage in total non-
    cosmopolitan genus/%
    1世界分布 Cosmopolitan distribution99
    2~7热带分布 Tropical distribution4466.679160.67
    8~14温带分布 Temperate distribution2131.825637.33
    15中国特有分布 Endemic to China11.5132
    总数(不含世界分布)Total(excluded the cosmopolitan)66100150100
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  聚类群落特征

    Table  5.   Clustering community characteristics

    类群编号
    Class
    group No.
    样方号
    Quadrat No.
    样方数
    Quadrat
    number
    海拔范围
    Altitude
    range/m
    主要物种
    Main species
    群系组类型
    Formation group
    群系类型
    Formation type
    A53~59,61~6714491~605毛竹,芭蕉,桫椤P. pubescens,M. basjoo,A. spinulosa丘陵山地竹林 Bamboo leaf figs irrigate grass毛竹林 Form. P. pubescens
    B1,3,4,8~10,14,16,
    19,20,22,23
    12521~602芭蕉,粗糠柴,川钓樟M. basjoo,M. philippensis,L. pulcherrima
    var. hemsleyana
    南亚热带常绿阔叶灌草丛 South subtropical evergreen broadleaved bushes芭蕉灌草丛 Form. M. basjoo
    C6,11,15,17,21,
    51,52
    7520~609芭蕉,桫椤,罗伞A. spinulosa
    M. basjoo,B. glomerulata
    南亚热带常绿阔叶灌草丛 South subtropical evergreen broadleaved bushes桫椤-芭蕉-罗伞灌草丛 Form. A. spinulosa-M. basjoo-B.
    glomerulata
    D2,24,253503~561粗糠柴,罗伞,粗叶木
    M. philippensis,Brassaiopsis
    glomerulata,L. chinensis
    南亚热带常绿阔叶灌草丛 South subtropical evergreen broadleaved bushes桫椤-芭蕉-罗伞灌草丛 Form. A. spinulosa-M. basjoo-B.
    glomerulata
    E69,702577~669马尾松,油桐,杉木
    P. massoniana,V. fordii
    C. lanceolata
    暖性松林 Warm pine forest马尾松林 Form. P. massoniana
    F5,7,123560~617粗糠柴,粗叶木,芭蕉
    M. philippensis,L. chinensis
    M. basjoo
    南亚热带常绿阔叶灌草丛 South subtropical evergreen broadleaved bushes芭蕉灌草丛 Form. M. basjoo
    G13,182534~551芭蕉,罗伞,茜树M. basjoo
    Brassaiopsis glomerulata
    A. cochinchinensis
    南亚热带常绿阔叶灌草丛 South subtropical evergreen broadleaved bushes桫椤-芭蕉-罗伞灌草丛 Form. A. spinulosa-M. basjoo-B.
    glomerulata
    H60,68,723496~911竹叶榕,楠木,赤杨叶
    F. stenophylla,P. zhennan
    A. fortunei
    楠木林 Form. P. zhennan楠木林 Form. P. zhennan
    I36,712898~916杉木,柃木,光皮梾木
    C. lanceolate,E. japonica,
    S. wilsoniana
    杉木林 Form. C. lanceolata杉木林 Form. C. lanceolata
    J29,35,40,44,45,
    49,50
    7900~937光皮梾木,亮叶桦,赤杨叶
    S. wilsoniana,B. luminifera
    A. fortunei
    桦木林-桤木林 Birch forest -alder forest亮叶桦林 Form. B. luminifera
    K34,37,46,474895~926枫香,四川大头茶,赤杨叶
    L. formosana,G. acuminata
    A. fortunei
    枫香-落叶阔叶树混交林
    L. formosana-mixed deciduous
    broadleaved forest
    枫香-四川大头茶混交林 Form. L. formosana-G.
    acuminata
    L28,38,393910~929光皮梾木,灯台树,毛脉南酸枣S. wilsoniana,B. controversum
    C. axillaris var. pubinervis
    楠木-落叶阔叶树混交林
    P. zhennan-mixed deciduous
    broadleaved forest
    楠木-灯台树-毛脉南酸枣林 Form. P. zhennan-B.
    controversum-C. axillaris var.
    pubinervis
    M31,33,483906~939水麻,毛叶木姜子,柃木D.
    orientalis,L. mollis,E. japonica
    灯台树林 Form. B. controversum灯台树林 Form. B.
    controversum
    N26,27,30,32,41~
    43,73
    8903~927柃木,灯台树,毛脉南酸枣
    E. japonica,B. controversum
    C. axillaris var. pubinervis
    楠木-落叶阔叶树混交林
    P. zhennan-mixed deciduous
    broadleaved forest
    楠木-灯台树-毛脉南酸枣林 Form. P. zhennan-B.
    controversum-C. axillaris var.
    pubinervis
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2018-05-23
  • 修回日期:  2018-06-19
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