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红椎天然更新及其影响因子研究

赵总 贾宏炎 蔡道雄 庞圣江 安宁 刘勇

赵总, 贾宏炎, 蔡道雄, 庞圣江, 安宁, 刘勇. 红椎天然更新及其影响因子研究[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2018, 40(11): 76-83. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180190
引用本文: 赵总, 贾宏炎, 蔡道雄, 庞圣江, 安宁, 刘勇. 红椎天然更新及其影响因子研究[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2018, 40(11): 76-83. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180190
Zhao Zong, Jia Hongyan, Cai Daoxiong, Pang Shengjiang, An Ning, Liu Yong. Natural regeneration and its influencing factors of Castanopsis hystrix[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2018, 40(11): 76-83. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180190
Citation: Zhao Zong, Jia Hongyan, Cai Daoxiong, Pang Shengjiang, An Ning, Liu Yong. Natural regeneration and its influencing factors of Castanopsis hystrix[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2018, 40(11): 76-83. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180190

红椎天然更新及其影响因子研究

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180190
基金项目: 

“十三五”国家重点研发计划“马尾松人工林近自然经营技术” 2017YFD0600304

中国林业科学研究院热带林业实验中心科学基金项目“红椎天然更新机制研究” RL2015-06

详细信息
    作者简介:

    赵总,博士生,工程师。主要研究方向:城市生态林与森林培育。Email:zhaozong168@126.com 地址:532600广西凭祥市科园路8号

    责任作者:

    刘勇,博士,博士生导师,教授。主要研究方向:种苗培育理论与技术及城市生态林与森林培育。Email:lyong@bjfu.edu.cn 地址:100083北京市海淀区清华东路35号

  • 中图分类号: S792.17

Natural regeneration and its influencing factors of Castanopsis hystrix

  • 摘要: 目的开展基于近自然化森林经营技术的红椎人工林天然更新研究,为解决长期困扰红椎人工林的生长质量差、林分稳定性低及经营成本过高等问题提供依据。方法利用样地调查法对广西凭祥热林中心林区3种林分(红椎人工林、针阔人工混交林及马尾松人工林)中的红椎天然更新进行了调查,并采取室内试验方法对红椎种子萌发进行测定,通过多元回归统计及方差分析方法对数据进行分析。结果红椎在所有林分中更新频度及密度均超过其他树种,在针叶树人工林下红椎更新最差,更新密度为625株/hm2,而在针阔混交林下更新密度相对较低(3 673株/hm2),在红椎人工林下更新最好(21 231株/hm2);林分中凋落物层厚度与草本盖度是影响红椎更新的重要环境因子,红椎更新密度与两者呈明显负相关;当与母树的距离S≤5 m时红椎出现更新不良,周围仅出现7.5%的更新幼苗。经红椎种子萌发试验测定,马尾松未分解凋落叶水浸液质量比为1:10时,对红椎种子发芽产生明显抑制作用。结论试验结果说明草本盖度、凋落物层厚度和凋落叶中化感物质的抑制作用及母树的缺失可能是导致红椎在针叶树人工林下更新不良的主要原因。

     

  • 表  1  不同林分天然更新调查样地状况

    Table  1.   Sample-plot survey conditions of natural regeneration of different plantations

    林分类型
    Stand type
    样地数
    Sample plot number
    样地面积
    Sample plot area/m2
    林龄
    Stand age/a
    主要组成树种
    Main tree species
    红椎人工林Castanopsis hystrix plantation 20 20×20 33~37 红椎、印度栲、火力楠等Castanopsis hystrix, Castanopsis indica, Michelia macclurei, etc
    针阔人工混交林Coniferous and broadleaved artificial mixed forest 30 20×20 30~42 马尾松、红椎、印度栲、毛桐、破布木等Pinus massoniana, Castanopsis hystrix, Castanopsis indica, Mallotus barbatus, Cordia dichotoma, etc
    马尾松人工林Pinus massoniana plantation 20 20×20 32~47 马尾松、红椎、漆木、琴叶榕等Pinus massoniana, Castanopsis hystrix, Toxicodendron succedaneum, Ficus pandurate, etc
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  3种林分类型林下树种天然更新状况调查结果

    Table  2.   Surveying results of species' natural regeneration under three types of plantations

    主要更新树种
    Main regeneration species
    红椎人工林
    Castanopsis hystrix plantation
    针阔人工混交林
    Coniferous and broadleaved artificial mixed forest
    马尾松人工林
    Pinus massoniana plantation
    更新频度
    Renewal frequency/%
    更新株数/(株·hm-2)
    Renewal plant number/(plant·ha-1)
    更新频度
    Renewal frequency/%
    更新株数/(株·hm-2)
    Renewal plant number/(plant·ha-1)
    更新频度
    Renewal frequency/%
    更新株数/(株·hm-2)
    Renewal plant number/(plant·ha-1)
    红椎Castanopsis hystrix 100 21 231 42 3 673 16 625
    火力楠Michelia macclurei 8 689 13 973 0 0
    马尾松Pinus massoniana 0 0 9 181 5 261
    印度栲Castanopsis indica 11 237 6 402 3 160
    毛桐Mallotus barbatus 5 103 10 470 7 358
    破布木Cordia dichotoma 6 141 15 337 4 229
    漆木Toxicodendron succedaneum 9 259 12 391 6 117
    琴叶榕Ficus pandurata 3 47 8 109 10 197
    合计Total 142 22 707 115 6 536 51 1 947
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同林分类型的环境因子调查状况

    Table  3.   Survey status of the environmental factors of different plantations

    环境因子
    Environmental factor
    红椎人工林
    Castanopsis hystrix plantation
    针阔人工混交林
    Coniferous broadleaved artificial mixed forest
    马尾松人工林
    Pinus massoniana plantation
    郁闭度Canopy density 0.65 0.73 0.40
    草本盖度Herb coverage/% 15.8 85.4 82.3
    灌木盖度Shrub coverage/% 31.0 50.6 42.5
    腐殖质层厚度Thickness of soil humus/cm 5~10 3~6 2~5
    凋落物层厚度Thickness of litter layer/cm 1~2 3 3~6
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  红椎更新密度与环境因子相关性分析

    Table  4.   Correlation analysis between environmental factors and regeneration density of Castanopsis hystrix

    立地环境因子
    Site environmental factor
    回归系数
    Regression coefficient
    偏相关系数
    Partial correlation coefficient
    复相关系数
    Multiple correlation coefficient
    坡度Gradient 230.0 0.102 7 0.502 6*
    郁闭度Canopy density 15 331.6 0.342 1* (回归方程常数项为Constant of regression
    草本盖度Herb coverage -214.2 -0.460 9* equation:B0=-16 274.5)
    灌木盖度Shrub coverage -103.6 -0.106 8
    腐殖质层厚Thickness of soil humus 2 720.1 0.132 6
    凋落物层厚Thickness of litter layers 4 615.3 -0.312 0*
    上坡Up slope 10 214.0
    中坡Middle slope 13 608.2
    下坡Down slope 18 156.4
    注:偏相关检验R0.05(70)=0.161 7,R0.01(70)=0.231 5;复相关检验R0.05(70,5)=0.283 8,R0.01(70,5)=0.342 8。*表示相关性显著(P < 0.05)。Notes:partial correlation test R0.05(70)=0.161 7,R0.01(70)=0.231 5;multiple correlation test R0.05(70,5)=0.283 8,R0.01(70,5)=0.342 8. * means significant relation at P < 0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  不同林分类型红椎幼苗更新的频率变化

    Table  5.   Frequency change of regeneration seedlings of Castanopsis hystrix of different plantations

    与最近母树的距离
    Distance to the nearby seed tree(S)
    红椎幼苗的更新频率(平均值)
    Renewal frequency of Castanopsis hystrix’s seedling(mean)/%
    总平均值
    General average/%
    红椎人工林
    Castanopsis hystrix plantation
    针阔人工混交林
    Coniferous broadleaved artificial mixed forest
    马尾松人工林
    Pinus massoniana plantation
    S<5 m 10.1 8.0 4.4 7.5
    5 m≤S<10 m 50.6 18.7 9.0 26.1
    10 m≤S<15 m 100.0 74.8 30.1 68.3
    15 m≤S<20 m 90.5 56.4 25.9 57.6
    20 m≤S<25 m 69.0 47.8 14.3 43.7
    25 m≤S<30 m 43.5 22.3 10.4 25.4
    S>30 m 61.0 35.2 20.5 38.9
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  红椎与马尾松凋落叶水浸液对红椎种子萌发的影响

    Table  6.   Influence of leaf litter infusion of Castanopsis hystrix and Pinus massoniana on seed germination of Castanopsis hystrix

    不同质量比水平
    Level of different mass ratio
    红椎种子平均发芽率Mean germination rate of Castanopsis hystrix seed/%
    马尾松未分解凋落叶浸泡液Undecomposed leaf litter infusion of Pinus massoniana 马尾松半分解凋落叶浸泡液Semi-decomposed leaf litter infusion of Pinus massoniana 红椎未分解凋落叶浸泡液Undecomposed leaf litter infusion of Castanopsis hystrix 红椎半分解凋落叶浸泡液Semi-decomposed leaf litter infusion of Castanopsis hystrix
    X:Y=1:10 22.1d 24.5d 30.8c 32.5c
    X:Y=1:20 26.4c 28.2c 31.6bc 34.7b
    X:Y=1:40 27.3c 31.9b 33.7b 36.3b
    X:Y=1:70 33.6b 38.1a 29.5c 30.4d
    对照Control 39.7a 39.7a 39.7a 39.7a
    注:X表示凋落叶质量,Y表示蒸馏水质量;多重比较结果以小写字母表示,不同小写字母表示水平间差异显著(P<0.05)。Notes:X means leaf litter mass, Y means distilled water mass; small letters mean multiple comparisons, significant difference between levels was showed by different small letters (P < 0.05).
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2018-06-11
  • 修回日期:  2018-07-28
  • 刊出日期:  2018-11-01

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