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瑞典南部Ostad区私有林多目标森林经营中期规划

任文子 王新杰 AlexAppiah Mensah

任文子, 王新杰, AlexAppiah Mensah. 瑞典南部Ostad区私有林多目标森林经营中期规划[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2019, 41(2): 97-105. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180220
引用本文: 任文子, 王新杰, AlexAppiah Mensah. 瑞典南部Ostad区私有林多目标森林经营中期规划[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2019, 41(2): 97-105. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180220
Ren Wenzi, Wang Xinjie, Alex Appiah Mensah. Medium term planning of multi-objective forest management in private forest of Ostad Estate, southern Sweden[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2019, 41(2): 97-105. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180220
Citation: Ren Wenzi, Wang Xinjie, Alex Appiah Mensah. Medium term planning of multi-objective forest management in private forest of Ostad Estate, southern Sweden[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2019, 41(2): 97-105. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180220

瑞典南部Ostad区私有林多目标森林经营中期规划

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180220
基金项目: 

国家重点研发计划“东北天然次生林抚育更新技术研究与示范” 2017YFC050410101

详细信息
    作者简介:

    任文子。主要研究方向:森林经营理论与技术。Email: renwenzi920331@gmail.com 地址:100083北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学林学院

    责任作者:

    王新杰,教授。主要研究方向:森林经理学。Email: xinjiew@bjfu.edu.cn 地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S757.4

Medium term planning of multi-objective forest management in private forest of Ostad Estate, southern Sweden

  • 摘要: 目的根据瑞典私有林多目标经营的主要做法,对瑞典南部Ostad区进行为期10年的中期森林经营规划, 以期实现木材收获和生态保护的双重目标。方法规划包括样地调查、ProdMod生长预测、结果分析和计划制定。调查开展的时间为2017年10—12月, 调查地点为Ostad区全区206.27 hm2的89个小班。结果根据规划,截至2027年共有15个小班、2 136.40 m3的蓄积需要间伐,净收入为278 480.80瑞典克朗;33个小班、15 497.00 m3的蓄积需要进行皆伐收获,净收入为1 481 695 838.00瑞典克朗;27个小班、45.39 hm2的面积需要进行更新,共花费1 804 742.88瑞典克朗;9个小班、13.75 hm2的面积需要抚育,共花费18 956.00瑞典克朗;22.87 hm2的森林面积被增设为生态保护区范围。结论截至2027年,Ostad区将有170.88 hm2的面积作为用材林,35.39 hm2的森林面积作为生态保护区,总收益为14.80亿瑞典克朗,净现值为12.19亿瑞典克朗。在本次规划中,10年间收获量小于生长量,实现了可持续的基本收获目标;规划期末林分合理的年龄分布确保了稳定的年收入,扩大的生态保护区面积为区域内的动植物保护提供了重要场所。规划基本达到了木材收获与生态保护的双重目标。此外,规划仍存在一些不确定因素可能会对经营结果产生影响,如自然灾害、市场波动和气候变化,经分析,本规划将通过提高收益和调整经营树种来应对这些不确定因素。

     

  • 图  1  Ostad各经营类型和土地利用类型分布图

    Figure  1.  Overview of forest landscape as characterized by management objectives and land uses in the Ostad Estate

    图  2  挪威云杉在G30立地指数时的间伐表

    Figure  2.  Thinning guideline for Norwayspruce under site index of G30

    图  3  规划前后的龄级分布

    Figure  3.  Age class distribution at the beginning (2017) and the end (2027) of the planning period

    表  1  2017年Ostad区森林生长量与木材产量

    Table  1.   Growth and productivity of Ostad Estate with a reference year of 2017

    变量Variable 数值Value
    森林面积/hm2
    Forest area/ha
    206.27
    平均生长量(上一个10年规划期)
    Mean growth(according to last ten-year planning)/
    (m3·a-1)
    1 944.98
    每公顷平均生长量/(m3·(hm-2·a-1))
    Mean growth per hectare/(m3·(ha-1·a-1))
    9.43
    连年生长量
    Continuous annual growth/(m3·a-1)
    1 799.62
    每公顷连年生长量/(m3·(hm-2·a-1))
    Continuous annual growth per hectare/(m3·(ha-1·a-1))
    8.70
    活立木蓄积
    Living standing stock/m3
    45 922.14
    每公顷活立木蓄积/(m3·hm-2)
    Living standing stock per hectare/(m3·ha-1)
    222.63
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  2017年树种组成及活立木蓄积

    Table  2.   Species composition and living standing stock in 2017

    树种
    Species
    蓄积
    Volume/m3
    组成
    Proportion/%
    欧洲赤松Scots pine 8 304.58 18.08
    挪威云杉Norway spruce 28 474.78 62.00
    白桦Birch 4 021.41 8.76
    欧洲山毛榉Beech 102.96 0.22
    重要阔叶树种
    Nobel broadleaved species
    4 916.57 10.71
    其他阔叶树种
    Other broadleaved species
    101.84 0.22
    总量Total 45 922.14 100.00
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  Ostad区各经营类型总面积

    Table  3.   Total area of each management type in Ostad Estate

    类型
    Type code
    面积/hm2
    Area/ha
    比例
    Percentage/%
    活立木蓄积
    Living standing volume/m3
    NO 3 1.45 496.72
    NS 9.52 4.65 2 313.70
    PF 17.96 8.71 4 770.97
    PG 175.79 85.22 38 340.75
    总量Total 206.27 100 45 922.14
    注:NO为无人工干预的生态保留地,NS轻微人工干预的生态保留地,PF为强生态保护用材林,PG为一般生态保护要求的用材林。下同。Notes: NO, nature conservation with no human intervention; NS, nature conservation with slight human intervention; PF, strong ecological protection timber forest; PG, general ecological protection timber forest. The same below.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  林分成熟等级划分依据

    Table  4.   Baseline of stand maturity classification

    成熟等级
    Maturity class
    划分原因
    Classification reason[9, 11, 13]
    GA31 1.根据历史经营信息该部分从未被间伐过;2.每公顷株数达到2 500株;3.断面积仅达到31 m2/hm2;4.优势高为14 m;5.蓄积达到209 m3/hm2; 6.年龄均未达到规定的最低采伐年龄。以上指标均说明,以上林地未达到皆伐标准,需要间伐,经营采取的紧迫性根据小班的地位指数和优势树高决定
    1. Never thinned before according to management history; 2. The stem number is over 2 500 per hectare; 3. The basal area just reaches 31 m2/ha;4. The top height is over(includes) 14 m; 5. The volume has reached 209 m3/ha; 6.The age is below regulated youngest year. All of these indicators show that the stand has not reached the clear cutting requirement, thinning is required, the thinning priority depends on site index and top height
    GA32/
    GA33
    1.每公顷株数为1 936;2.优势树高仅为13.6 m;3.年龄距最后最低收获年龄还有19年。以上指标说明需要间伐,且遭受风害的可能性较低。根据紧迫性将其分为GA32和GA33两类
    1. The stem number is 1 936; 2. The height of dominant tree is only 13.6 m; 3. There are 19 years before the required age of harvesting. All these indicators imply that stands with these characteristics have low possibility to be damaged by storm and wind throw, thinning can be implemented. According to the risk emergency, they could be grouped into GA32 and GA33
    K11 根据历史经营信息,该样地在更新后未作任何处理
    Notreatment after regeneration according to the management history
    K14 1.已更新且已做过防护或抚育工作
    1. Regenerated, so did fencing or pre-commercial thinning
    R21 1.近期未核查过,但按照历史记录需要抚育;2.每公顷株数为2 700;3.立地条件较好,林下有大量杂草形成竞争;4.优势树高为4 m
    1. It should get pre-commercial thinning according to management history; 2. The stem number is 2 700 per ha; 3. With high site index, weed competes with seedling; 4. The height of dominant tree is 4 m
    R22 1.树高已超过抚育的经营范围;2.年龄已超过0~5年的经营范围
    1.The top height is over the height range of pre-commercial thinning; 2. The age is over 5 years
    S 1.优势树高为25 m;2.蓄积为370 m3/hm2;3.断面积为34 m2/hm2;4.每公顷株数为715株;5.年龄大于规定采伐最低年龄。为保证经济效益,以上指标均说明该林地急需皆伐,各小班采取经营措施的紧迫性主要根据树高、断面积和每公顷株数确定
    1.The height of dominant tree is over 25 m; 2. The volume is 370 m3/ha; 3. The basal area is 34 m2/ha;4. The stem number is 715 per ha; 5. The age is over the thinning age. To purse the highest economic income, all stands with these characteristics need clear cut, priority depends on tree height, stem number and basal area
    GA34 1.每公顷株数为557;2.断面积为32 m2/hm2;3.优势树高均超越22.7 m;4.立地条件好,地位指数为G34;5.达到或将在规划期内达到法案要求的采伐年龄。以上指标均说明林地不适宜再采取间伐措施,可根据具体情况进行收获或做其他安排
    1. The stem number is 557 per ha; 2. The basal area is 32 m2/ha;3. The top height is over 22.7 m; 4. Nice stand, site index is G34; 5. Reached the required clear felling age. All these indicators show these stands don’t need to be thinned, the implementation could be done according to the specific condition
    注:GA31为需要间伐或从未间伐过的小班,GA32、GA33为需要间伐的小班,GA34为不需要间伐的小班,K11为未更新小班,K14为已更新但未复查的小班,R21为需要抚育或情况不明的幼龄林,R22为不需要抚育的幼龄林,S为需要皆伐收获的小班。Notes:GA31 is sublot need be thinned or never been thinned, GA32 and GA33 are sublots need be thinned, GA34 is sublot needn’t be thinned, K11 is no regenerated sublot, K14 is regenerated but no check sublot, R21 is young forest need foster or the situation is not clear, R22 is young forest needn’t foster, S is clear cutting harvesting sublot.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  Ostad区2017年林分成熟等级表

    Table  5.   Stand status by maturity classes of Ostad Estate in 2017

    成熟等级
    Maturity class
    小班个数
    Sublot number
    总蓄积
    Total volume/m3
    比例
    Percentage/%
    经营类型
    Managing type
    GA31 9 2 822.72 6.15 PG
    GA32/G33 16 9 389.39 20.45 PG、NS
    K11 1 0.00 0.00 PG
    K14 6 19.69 0.04 PG
    R21 5 105.99 0.23 PG
    R22 3 226.39 0.49 PG
    S 36 25 521.52 55.58 PG、PF、NO、NS
    GA34 13 7 836.46 17.06 PG、PF
    合计Total 89 45 922.14 100.00
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  规划实施表

    Table  6.   Detailed management planning

    经营措施
    Management measure
    小班个数
    Sublot number
    面积/
    hm2
    Area/ha
    筛选来源
    Screening source
    小班筛选标准及实施标准[13-14]
    Sublot screening criteria and implementation standard[13-14]
    间伐Thinning 15 43.26 GA31
    GA33
    GA32
    1.为确保收获量,根据间伐表伐去15%~30%的断面积;2.未经过间伐,地位指数较大,林分优势高已超过11 m的小班,为避免遭受风害及雪害造成的经济损失,根据其紧迫程度安排实施时间;3.为避免风害,接近成熟的小班应跳过间伐等待收获;4.根据林分状态采用上层间伐和下层间伐结合的方式,确保个体的平均生长;5.将地位指数低或生态保护价值高的小班的经营目标转化为PF或NS;6.为降低经济风险,尽量在规划前期进行,同时可将收益用于后续经营
    1. To make sure of the harvest volume, thinning amount will be among 15% to 30% of basal area; 2. To avoid the wind-throw and snow storm, arrange the thinning schedule according to the priority of management history, site index, and the top height; 3. Skip stands which are almost mature, wait for final felling; 4. Combine thinning from above and thinning from below to make stands grow evenly; 5. Transfer stands which have high nature conservation value or low site index to be PF or NS; 6. To reduce the economic risks, arrange thinning at the beginning of the plan, income could also be used for lateral output
    皆伐
    Clear cut
    33 55.52 S
    GA34
    GA33
    根据林业局要求:1.林分年龄达到林业法案要求的最低年龄;2.平均胸径达到25 cm;3.根据平均胸径,断面积和林分密度确定各小班的经营紧迫性,以确保收益最大化;4.生态考虑:每公顷留下3~5株高度大于30 cm的树桩,为避免狩猎、蹄类动物的破坏,同时为更新小班建立微环境,在欧洲赤松的小班内留下5株母树,5年后伐除;5.皆伐后留下10%的蓄积量作为生态保护和缓冲区;6.转化具有生态保护价值小班的经营目标[4, 6-7];7.将部分皆伐收获用作后续经营支出
    According to forest agency: 1.The stand age should reach the required year; 2. The average DBH should reach 25 cm; 3. The harvest priority depends on average DBH, basal area, stem density; 4. Nature considerations: Retain 3-5 high stumps, leave five retained trees for nature regeneration and avoiding damages from browsing and ungulate, cut these trees after 5 years; 5. Retain 10% volume to be buffer zone and nature reservation; 6. Transfer the management type for stands with high conservation values[4, 6-7]; 7. Part of income can be used for regeneration, fencing etc
    更新
    Regeneration
    27 45.39 S
    GA34
    GA33
    K11
    1.皆伐后样地;2.皆伐后样地继续种植皆伐前的树种及比例;3.白桦采用自然更新的办法;4.更新密度根据瑞典林业局森林更新办法中不同立地条件对应的种植密度进行;5.通过推迟种植时间、整地、选择不同大小,种类的幼苗来降低由于象鼻虫造成的死亡损耗[6];6.建立围栏,防止狩猎和放牧对更新苗的影响;7.将生产力低的区域改为生态保护区
    1. Stands after clear cut; 2. Keep the previous tree species and proportion; 3. Keep nature regeneration for birch; 4. Regeneration density will be decided according to Regenerate Act from Swedish Forest Agency; 5. Reduce mortality from pine-weevil attacks by delaying planting, scarification, choosing different seedling type, sizes[6];6. Build fence to avoid game browsing; 7. Transfer stands with low productivity to nature conservation area
    抚育
    Pre-commercial thinning
    9 13.75 K14
    R21
    R22
    1.皆伐更新后未经过抚育措施的样地;2.经营期内优势高为3~5 m;3.每公顷株数大于2 500株;4.清理林分内的过量白桦和发展不良的针叶树种
    1. Stands without any treatment after regeneration; 2. The dominant tree height is 3-5 m; 3. Stem number is 2 500 per ha; 4. Remove quite a substantial amount of birch and bad quality conifers
    不采取措施
    No implementation
    34 47.99 S
    GA34
    GA33
    K14
    K11
    1.根据预测结果,所需要采取的经营措施在10年内未达到林业法规定,如采伐年龄未达到林业法要求的下限,或在规划期内不需要采取措施的小班,在本次规划中不作具体考虑;2.将经营目标调整为NS或NO的小班
    1. According to the predicted result, all treatment should be implemented after 10 years according to the regulations, for example, the age is lower than the required cutting age, or the treatment would be in the next ten-years plan; 2.The objective has been changed to NS or NO
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  Ostad区生态保护区设置

    Table  7.   Areas designated for conservation of nature values for Ostad Estate

    小班号
    Sublot No.
    面积/hm2
    Area/ha
    立地指数
    Site index
    旧规划目标
    Previous objective
    新规划目标
    Current objective
    原因
    Reason
    1 161 1.01 T18 PG NO 生产力低下Low productivity
    1 440 2.93 E22 PF NO 高比例重要阔叶树种High proportion of noble broadleaved species
    1 450 0.68 E20 PF NO 高比例重要阔叶树种High proportion of noble broadleaved species
    1 950 0.66 E22 PG NO 高比例重要阔叶树种High proportion of noble broadleaved species
    2 000 0.78 T18 PF NS 生产力低下Low productivity
    2 110 0.34 B20 PF NO 高比例其他阔叶树种High proportion of other broadleaved species
    2 120 8.36 G32 PF NS 高比例重要阔叶树种High proportion of noble broadleaved species
    2 140 0.44 G32 PF NO 高比例欧洲山毛榉High proportion ofbeech
    2 220 4.46 G34 PG NS 高比例重要阔叶树种High proportion of noble broadleaved species
    2 240 0.50 E19 PG NO 高比例重要阔叶树种High proportion of noble broadleaved species
    2 300 2.22 G32 PF NS 大量重要阔叶树种和一定数量的针叶树种Significant amount of noble and conifers species
    2 310 0.21 G35 PG NO 高比例其他阔叶树种High proportion of other broadlead species
    2 330 0.28 T10 PG NS 高比例重要阔叶树种High proportion of noble broadleaved species
    1 270 1.76 T14 NO NO 经营目的保持不变Management objective unchanged
    1 300 1.48 E18 NS NS
    1 390 1.24 E18 NO NO
    1 400 6.27 E20 NS NS
    1 430 0.92 E16 NS NS
    2 210 0.85 G32 NS NS
    总计Total 35.39
    注:G为以云杉林定义的立地指数,T为以赤松定义的立地指数,E为以栎类为代表的重要阔叶树种定义的立地指数,B为以白桦为代表的一般阔叶树种定义的立地指数,数值越高则产量越大。Notes: G is the symbol of site index in spruce forest; T is the symbol of site index in pine forest; E is the symbol of site index in noble broadleaved forest, here means oak; B is the symbol of site index in other broadleaved forest, higher value indicates higher volume.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  8  造林规划及收益情况(2017—2027年)

    Table  8.   Summary of silvicultural operations and revenues (SEK) carried out in the plan (2017-2027)

    年份Year 更新
    Regeneration
    抚育
    Pre-commercial thinning
    间伐
    Thinning
    皆伐
    Clearcut
    净现值/
    瑞典克朗
    Net present value (NPV)/
    SEK
    面积/hm2
    Area/ha
    支出/
    瑞典克朗
    Cost/SEK
    面积/hm2
    Area/ha
    支出/
    瑞典克朗
    Cost/SEK
    面积/hm2
    Area/ha
    净收入/
    瑞典克朗
    Net income/
    SEK
    面积/hm2
    Area/ha
    净收入/
    瑞典克朗
    Net income/
    SEK
    2017 0.00 0.00 4.71 5 761.00 9.82 147 668.50 11.37 269 258 111.40 256 571 446.60
    2018 5.21 213 916.00 1.72 1 892.00 11.33 20 878.70 11.06 314 008 125.10 284 637 819.30
    2019 3.23 134 302.60 6.5 10 355.00 7.66 22 070.60 7.90 204 335 589.60 176 406 869.80
    2020 11.06 367 475.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 3.79 237 081 449.30 194 745 172.50
    2021 7.90 339 477.40 0.79 948.00 0 0.00 5.53 84 718 083.73 66 112 103.17
    2022 7.40 357 841.90 0 0 0 0.00 0.98 36 536 422.42 24 593 769.59
    2023 2.90 90 680.70 0 0 3.82 15 739.20 3.38 135 001 375.80 95 889 697.80
    2024 3.38 129 102.70 0 0 5.74 34 222.20 0 0.00 -64 218.86
    2025 0.00 0.00 0 0 0.49 1 387.00 1.79 15 879 763.16 10 237 130.99
    2026 0.00 0.00 0 0 4.40 36 514.60 4.31 95 842 904.56 58 861 646.16
    2027 4.31 171 946.60 0 0 0 0.00 5.41 89 034 012.55 51 955 809.55
    总计Total 45.39 1 804 742.90 13.75 18 956.00 43.26 278 480.80 55.52 1 481 695 838.00 1 219 947 247.00
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  • [1] Royal Swedish Academy of Agriculture and Forestry. Forests and Forestry in Sweden[EB/OL]. (2015-08)[2018-07-04]. https://www.skogsstyrelsen.se/globalassets/in-english/forests-and-forestry-in-sweden_2015.pdf.
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    [13] Forest Stewardship Council. FSC principles and criteria for forest stewardship: FSC-STD-01-001 V5-2[S]. Bonn: FSC, 2004.
    [14] Swedish Forest Agency. Costs and revenues for measures in large-scale forestry in 2016[EB/OL]. (2017-08-16)[2018-07-04]. https://www.skogsstyrelsen.se/globalassets/statistik/statistiska-meddelanden/kostnader-i-skogsbruket-jo0307/2016-statistiska-meddelanden.-kostnader-och-intakter-i-det-storskaliga-skogsbruket.pdf.
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2018-07-12
  • 修回日期:  2018-11-26
  • 刊出日期:  2019-02-01

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