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北京市十三陵林场油松林地表火行为模拟

韩梅 温鹏 许惠敏 张永福 李伟克 刘晓东

韩梅, 温鹏, 许惠敏, 张永福, 李伟克, 刘晓东. 北京市十三陵林场油松林地表火行为模拟[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2018, 40(10): 95-101. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180249
引用本文: 韩梅, 温鹏, 许惠敏, 张永福, 李伟克, 刘晓东. 北京市十三陵林场油松林地表火行为模拟[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2018, 40(10): 95-101. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180249
Han Mei, Wen Peng, Xu Huimin, Zhang Yongfu, Li Weike, Liu Xiaodong. Simulation of surface fire behavior of Pinus tabuliformis forest in Ming Tombs Forest Farm in Beijing[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2018, 40(10): 95-101. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180249
Citation: Han Mei, Wen Peng, Xu Huimin, Zhang Yongfu, Li Weike, Liu Xiaodong. Simulation of surface fire behavior of Pinus tabuliformis forest in Ming Tombs Forest Farm in Beijing[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2018, 40(10): 95-101. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180249

北京市十三陵林场油松林地表火行为模拟

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180249
基金项目: 

国家自然科学 31770696

详细信息
    作者简介:

    韩梅。主要研究方向:森林防火。Email: 1362682921@qq.com  地址:100083北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学林学院

    责任作者:

    刘晓东,副教授。主要研究方向:森林防火。Email: xd_liu@bjfu.edu.cn  地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S762.1

Simulation of surface fire behavior of Pinus tabuliformis forest in Ming Tombs Forest Farm in Beijing

  • 摘要: 目的油松林是华北地区典型针叶林分,易发生森林火灾。通过对油松林地表火行为模拟研究可以为森林可燃物管理,林火预防及扑救提供科学依据。方法本研究以北京市十三陵林场油松林为研究对象,通过野外调查地表枯死可燃物(1、10、100 h时滞)和灌层可燃物,记录林分因子(第1枝下高、树高、林龄和胸径)和环境因子(坡度、坡向和海拔)。结合内业实验测可燃物含水率和热值,利用火行为模拟软件BehavePlus5.0,对1 h时滞可燃物设定不同含水率和风速值,模拟所研究林分地表火蔓延速度、火线强度、火焰高度以及单位面积发热量4个重要的火行为指标。结果1、10、100 h时滞和灌层可燃物占总可燃物载量比分别为78%、5%、4%和13%。基于实测可燃物载量和含水率,油松林地表火蔓延速度平均值为2.1 m/min,火线强度平均值为270 kW/m,火焰高度平均值为0.95 m单位面积发热量平均值为7 139 kJ/m2。油松林1 h时滞可燃物载量显著高于10 h时滞和灌层可燃物载量。在1 h时滞可燃物含水率为6%,风速为40 km/h的强风和干旱天气条件下,油松林地表火蔓延速度平均值为15.1 m/min,火线强度平均值为3 278.5 kW/m,火焰高度平均值为3.1 m,单位面积发热量平均值为12 337.5 kJ/m2结论油松林内1 h时滞细小可燃物载量高于其他类型可燃物载量。地表火蔓延速度慢,火强度低,火焰高度低于第一枝下高,在正常天气条件下容易被扑灭。模拟结果表明油松林在低含水率的条件下,风速会显著增加地表火蔓延速度,难以人为扑灭,需清理地表可燃物,降低火险。

     

  • 图  1  不同类型可燃物载量

    Figure  1.  Fuel load of different types

    图  2  不同条件下地表火蔓延速度

    Figure  2.  Spreading speed of surface fire under different conditions

    图  3  不同条件下油松林地表火火线强度

    Figure  3.  Fireline intensity of Pinus tabuliformis forest under different conditions

    表  1  外业调查基本信息

    Table  1.   Basic information of field investigation

    样地号
    Sample plot No.
    林龄
    Stand age
    平均胸径
    Average DBH/cm
    第1枝下高
    Height of first lower branch/m
    坡度
    Slope degree/(°)
    可燃物床厚度
    Depth of fuel bed/cm
    P1 59 15.70 1.84 15 4.9
    P2 59 13.27 2.44 18 8.6
    P3 59 11.27 1.79 20 8.3
    P4 59 11.85 2.30 23 8.3
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同含水率条件下油松林单位面积发热量

    Table  2.   Thermal value per unit area of Pinus tabuliformis forest under different moisture conditions

    含水率Mositure content/% 单位面积发热量Thermal value per unit area/(kJ·m-2)
    P1 P2 P3 P4
    1 10 580 18 754 18 789 18 571
    6 8 051 13 836 13 688 13 775
    11 7 327 12 473 12 309 12 446
    16 6 770 11 583 11 482 11 602
    21 4 622 7 942 7 907 8 085
    26 0 0 0 0
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  不同条件下油松林地表火火焰高度

    Table  4.   Flame height of surface fire for Pinus tabuliformis forest under different conditions

    m
    项目
    Item
    1 h时滞可燃物含水率
    1 hour timelag fuel moisture/%
    中焰风速Mid-flame wind speed/(km·h-1)
    0 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64
    均值Average 1 1.1 1.9 2.6 3.2 3.8 4.4 4.9 5.3 5.7
    6 0.7 1.3 1.9 2.3 2.8 3.1 3.5 3.7 4.0
    11 0.7 1.2 1.6 2.0 2.4 2.7 3.0 3.2 3.4
    16 0.6 1.0 1.4 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0
    21 0.4 0.7 1.0 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7
    26 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
    最大值Max. 1 1.3 2.2 3.2 3.9 4.6 5.3 5.9 6.4 6.9
    6 0.9 1.6 2.3 2.8 3.3 3.8 4.2 4.6 5.0
    11 0.8 1.4 2.0 2.4 2.9 3.3 3.6 4.0 4.3
    16 0.7 1.2 1.7 2.2 2.6 2.9 3.2 3.5 3.8
    21 0.5 0.8 1.2 1.5 1.7 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.1
    26 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2018-08-06
  • 修回日期:  2018-09-04
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