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不同产地东北红豆杉幼苗迁地保护的生长稳定性分析

吴世雄 刘艳红 张利民 尚福强 谭成权

吴世雄, 刘艳红, 张利民, 尚福强, 谭成权. 不同产地东北红豆杉幼苗迁地保护的生长稳定性分析[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2018, 40(12): 27-37. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180331
引用本文: 吴世雄, 刘艳红, 张利民, 尚福强, 谭成权. 不同产地东北红豆杉幼苗迁地保护的生长稳定性分析[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2018, 40(12): 27-37. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180331
Wu Shixiong, Liu Yanhong, Zhang Limin, Shang Fuqiang, Tan Chengquan. Growth stability analysis of ex situ conservation of Taxus cuspidata seedlings from different sources[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2018, 40(12): 27-37. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180331
Citation: Wu Shixiong, Liu Yanhong, Zhang Limin, Shang Fuqiang, Tan Chengquan. Growth stability analysis of ex situ conservation of Taxus cuspidata seedlings from different sources[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2018, 40(12): 27-37. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180331

不同产地东北红豆杉幼苗迁地保护的生长稳定性分析

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180331
基金项目: 

国家重点研发计划项目 2016YFC0503106

详细信息
    作者简介:

    吴世雄。主要研究方向:恢复生态及生物多样性保护。Email: wushixiong_1992@163.com  地址:100083   北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学林学院

    责任作者:

    刘艳红,教授,博士生导师。主要研究方向:恢复生态及生物多样性保护。Email: liuyh@bjfu.edu.cn  地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S723.9

Growth stability analysis of ex situ conservation of Taxus cuspidata seedlings from different sources

  • 摘要: 目的通过控制试验研究东北红豆杉宽甸、本溪、和龙、汪清、穆棱5个产地幼苗的生长特征,旨在探讨东北红豆杉在潜在分布区的引种适应性,为其迁地保护提供理论基础。方法试验分别在山东、北京、辽宁、吉林4个试验点观测3年生苗,对其苗高、地径、冠幅等7个性状进行多地点联合分析和多重比较。另外,用AMMI模型对东北红豆杉苗高进行基因型(G)、环境(E)和基因型与环境(G×E)互作分析,比较不同产地东北红豆杉幼苗在不同生境下生长的稳定性。结果(1) 山东试验点各产地幼苗地径、侧枝数、最长侧枝长和当年抽梢长生长量表现最好,分别高于北京试验点的3.77、1.88、10.35和1.30倍。各试验点内的表型性状变异系数平均高达30%以上,说明幼苗更具有很高的遗传分化。(2)从方差分量来看,苗高、地径、冠幅、当年抽梢长生长量在地点间的方差分量分别为62.89%、64.37%、32.65%、52.34%,远大于其他差异来源,说明地点效应对东北红豆杉生长影响最大。平均保存率由高到低分别为97.49%(吉林)>92.16%(辽宁)>89.92%(山东)>85.64%(北京)。结论(1) 东北红豆杉生长性状除地径生长量在产地与试验地互作效应上差异不显著外,其他都具有极显著的产地、地点以及产地×地点的互作效应。山东、北京、辽宁试验点生长较好的是汪清产地幼苗;吉林试验点生长较好的是本溪产地幼苗。(2)和龙产地幼苗生长良好且稳定,适合在4个试验点进行大面积迁地保护;宽甸产地幼苗在4个试验点都表现最差且保存率低,不适合迁地保护。山东生长比北京好,表明可以对东北红豆杉进行往南迁地保护,前提必须做好产地幼苗筛选试验。

     

  • 图  1  不同试验点东北红豆杉幼苗生长性状差异的多重比较

    Ⅰ.山东;Ⅱ.北京;Ⅲ.辽宁;Ⅳ.吉林。KD.宽甸产地;BX.本溪产地;HL.和龙产地;WQ.汪清产地;ML.穆棱产地。下同。不同小写字母表示同一试验点不同产地之间差异显著(P<0.05)。

    Figure  1.  Multiple comparisons for growth trait of Taxus cuspidata seedlings at different sites

    Ⅰ. Shandong; Ⅱ. Beijing; Ⅲ. Liaoning; Ⅳ. Jilin. KD. Kuandian Source; BX. Benxi Source; HL. Helong Source; WQ. Wangqing Source; ML. Muling Source. The same below. Different letters indicated significant difference among different sources in the same test site (P < 0.05).

    图  2  不同产地和地点间苗高生长量的双标图

    Figure  2.  AMMI plots for seeding height growth of Taxus cuspidata sources at different sites

    表  1  各试验点的地理气候条件

    Table  1.   Geographical and climatic conditions of the test sites

    序号
    No.
    试验地点
    Test site
    纬度
    Latitude
    经度
    Longitude
    海拔
    Altitude/m
    年均温
    Annual average
    temperature/℃
    年降水量
    Annual
    precipitation/mm
    年日照时数
    Annual sunshine
    hour/h
    山东Shandong Province37°39′N121°03′E5113.4627.62 656
    北京Beijing40°00′N116°20′E4912.5612.02 720
    辽宁Liaoning Province40°52′N123°54′E2398.3784.42 678
    吉林Jilin Province43°12′N129°37′E1684.5549.42 357
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  东北红豆杉幼苗产地概况

    Table  2.   Overview of the origin of Taxus cuspidata seedlings

    产地
    Source
    纬度
    Latitude
    经度
    Longitude
    苗木来源
    Seedling source
    辽宁宽甸
    Kuandian County of Liaoning
    Province
    40°03′N124°20′E辽宁省丹东市宽甸满族自治县鸭绿江生态苗木繁育基地
    Ecological seedling breeding base of Yalu River in Kuandian Manchu Autonomous
    County, Dandong City, Liaoning Province
    辽宁本溪
    Benxi City of Liaoning Province
    41°19′N123°47′E辽宁省本溪市桓仁满族自治县桓仁宏创苗木基地
    Huanren Hongchuang seedling breeding base of Huanren Manchu Autonomous
    County, Benxi City, Liaoning Province
    吉林和龙
    Helong City of Jilin Province
    42°31′N129°00′E吉林省和龙甑峰苗木有限公司
    Helongzhenfeng Seedling Breeding Limited Company in Jilin Province
    吉林汪清
    Wangqing County of Jilin Province
    43°18′N129°47′E吉林省延边朝鲜族自治州汪清县东北红豆杉生物科技有限公司
    Taxus cuspidata Biotechnology Limited Company of Wangqing County, Yanbian
    Korean Autonomous Prefecture, Jilin Province
    黑龙江穆棱
    Muling City of Heilongjiang
    Province
    44°36′N130°12′E黑龙江省穆棱市振才伟业红豆杉苗木基地
    Zhencai Weiye Taxus cuspidata seedling breeding base in Muling City,
    Heilongjiang Province
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同试验点东北红豆杉幼苗生长性状的变异参数

    Table  3.   Variation parameters for growth traits of Taxus cuspidata seedlings at different sites

    试验点
    Test site
    生长性状
    Growth trait
    均值
    Mean
    标准差
    Standard deviation
    变异范围
    Range of variation
    变异系数
    CV/%
    山东Shandong Province苗高Seedling height/cm4.141.212.50~6.8029.15
    地径Basal diameter/mm2.600.851.56~5.5632.56
    冠幅Crown width/cm1.930.770.70~3.5039.95
    侧枝数Number of lateral branch1.601.230~4.0076.94
    最长侧枝长Maximum length of lateral branch/cm2.380.861.10~4.3036.32
    当年抽梢长Length of shoot in current year/cm6.071.863.30~10.2030.63
    北京Beijing苗高Seedling height/cm1.440.500.50~2.2035.12
    地径Basal diameter/mm0.690.260.11~1.1237.23
    冠幅Crown width/cm0.810.520.10~1.8064.80
    侧枝数Number of lateral branch0.850.750~2.0087.65
    最长侧枝长Maximum length of lateral branch/cm0.230.170~0.6074.78
    当年抽梢长Length of shoot in current year/cm4.671.641.90~8.3035.19
    辽宁Liaoning Province苗高Seedling height/cm4.281.522.10~8.0035.62
    地径Basal diameter/mm1.510.270.96~2.1417.76
    冠幅Crown width/cm2.191.090.10~4.1049.96
    侧枝数Number of lateral branch0.450.310~2.0067.78
    最长侧枝长Maximum length of lateral branch/cm1.541.230.20~4.5080.24
    当年抽梢长Length of shoot in current year/cm5.261.633.30~9.2031.06
    吉林Jilin Province苗高Seedling height/cm1.590.710.50~3.4044.68
    地径Basal diameter/mm1.480.470.71~2.3832.02
    冠幅Crown width/cm1.400.610.60~2.8043.97
    侧枝数Number of lateral branch0.530.340~2.0063.40
    最长侧枝长Maximum length of lateral branch/cm1.240.490.50~2.4039.43
    当年抽梢长Length of shoot in current year/cm4.211.332.20~6.7031.58
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  不同试验点东北红豆杉幼苗生长性状联合方差分析

    Table  4.   Joint analysis of variance for growth traits of Taxus cuspidata seedlings at different sites

    生长性状
    Growth trait
    地点Site区组(地点)Block(site)产地Source产地×地点Source×site随机误差
    Random error
    dfF方差分量
    Variance
    component/%
    dfF方差分量
    Variance
    component/%
    dfF方差分量
    Variance
    component/%
    dfF方差分量
    Variance
    component/%
    df方差分量
    Variance
    component/%
    苗高Seedling height/cm398.448**62.8932.4571.57415.329**13.06124.046**10.345712.14
    地径Basal diameter/mm367.622**64.3732.2192.1147.607**9.65121.518**5.785718.09
    冠幅Crown width/cm323.217**32.6530.4150.5846.735**12.63124.874**27.425726.72
    侧枝数Number of lateral branch313.304**16.0531.4031.0546.854**58.17123.900**10.545714.19
    最长侧枝长Maximum length of
    lateral branch/cm
    367.760**22.7631.5082.40410.848**15.64126.682**26.695732.51
    当年抽梢长Length of shoot in
    current year/cm
    321.493**52.3431.4091.16458.424**11.17123.527**20.655714.68
    注:*差异显著,P<0.05;**差异极显著,P<0.01。Notes: * means significant difference,P<0.05;** means extremely significant difference,P<0.01.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  不同试验点东北红豆杉幼苗缓苗率和保存率

    Table  5.   Prolonged seedling conservation and preservation rate of Taxus cuspidata seedlings at different sites

    %
    试验点
    Test site
    产地
    Source
    缓苗率Seedling conservation rate保存率Preservation rate
    均值±标准差
    Mean± SD
    变异范围
    Range of variation
    均值±标准差
    Mean± SD
    变异范围
    Range of variation
    山东Shandong ProvinceKD91.60±5.1585.11~95.8371.85±15.1651.02~86.96
    BX100.00±0.00100.00~100.0091.40±3.0788.64~95.65
    HL99.49±1.0297.96~100.0095.98±4.9789.80~100.00
    WQ98.91±2.1895.65~100.0097.27±2.1195.56~100.00
    ML100.00±0.00100.00~100.0093.09±5.7784.78~97.87
    均值Mean98.00±4.0185.11~100.0089.92±11.7551.02~100.00
    北京BeijingKD60.44±15.0148.89~82.2256.41±12.4346.67~73.33
    BX86.51±4.2682.50~92.5082.94±4.1376.74~85.00
    HL98.88±1.3197.50~100.0098.88±1.3197.50~100.00
    WQ100.00±0.00100.00~100.0094.38±9.6680.00~100.00
    ML98.13±2.3995.00~100.0095.63±5.1590.00~100.00
    均值Mean88.79±16.6248.89~100.0085.64±17.3746.67~100.00
    辽宁Liaoning ProvinceKD90.49±5.0885.42~95.8378.40±6.3272.92~87.50
    BX96.88±2.6993.75~100.0091.15±3.5687.50~95.83
    HL99.48±1.0497.92~100.0098.43±2.0095.83~100.00
    WQ100.00±0.00100.00~100.00100.00±0.00100.00~100.00
    ML97.28±3.2193.75~100.0092.83±5.9786.05~97.87
    均值Mean96.82±4.3785.42~100.0092.16±8.7272.92~100.00
    吉林Jilin ProvinceKD97.47±0.9896.00~98.0095.93±6.8885.71~100.00
    BX95.78±7.2485.00~100.0096.52±4.7290.00~100.00
    HL100.00±0.00100.00~100.0097.00±4.7690.00~100.00
    WQ100.00±0.00100.00~100.0099.50±1.0098.00~100.00
    ML99.51±0.9898.04~100.0098.49±1.9895.83~100.00
    均值Mean98.55±3.3985.00~100.0097.49±4.1485.71~100.00
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  东北红豆杉苗高性状的方差分析及AMMI模型分析

    Table  6.   ANOVA and AMMI analysis for the seeding height growth of Taxus cuspidata

    分析方法
    Analytical method
    变异来源
    Source of variation
    df平方和
    Sum of
    square
    方差分量
    Variance
    component/%
    均方
    Mean
    square
    FP
    方差分析Analysis
    of variance
    总的Total79232.0342.937
    地点内区组Location within the block33.6421.571.2142.4570.072 0
    总处理Total treatment19200.22610.53819.8790.000 1
    产地Source430.29713.067.57415.3290.000 1
    地点Site3145.93762.8948.64698.4480.000 1
    产地×地点Source× site1223.99210.341.9994.0460.000 3
    误差Error5728.1650.494
    AMMI模型AMMI
    analysis
    PCA1621.79890.853.63328.5060.000 1
    PCA241.9408.080.4853.8050.008 0
    残差Residual20.2550.127
    误差Error6031.8080.530
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  东北红豆杉幼苗在显著互作效应轴上的得分及稳定性参数

    Table  7.   Scores of significant IPCA axis and stability parameter for Taxus cuspidata seedlings

    项目
    Item
    变量
    Variable
    苗高生长量平均值
    Mean growth of
    seedling height/cm
    离差
    Deviation
    IPCA1IPCA2Di
    产地SourceKD2.531-0.3280.3250.6910.764
    BX2.456-0.403-0.962-0.1300.970
    HL3.0690.2100.1360.0130.136
    WQ3.9691.1101.012-0.4231.097
    ML2.269-0.590-0.511-0.1500.533
    试验点Test place山东Shandong Province4.1401.2810.473-0.6650.816
    北京Beijing1.435-1.424-0.6370.0180.637
    辽宁Liaoning Province4.2751.4161.0020.4721.107
    吉林Jilin Province1.585-1.274-0.8380.1750.856
    注:表中IPCA栏的数字表示各个主成分值。Note: data under IPCA in the table represent the principal component value.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2018-10-16
  • 修回日期:  2018-11-03
  • 刊出日期:  2018-12-01

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