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林火对北京平谷区油松林土壤化学性质的影响

刘冠宏 李炳怡 宫大鹏 李伟克 刘晓东

刘冠宏, 李炳怡, 宫大鹏, 李伟克, 刘晓东. 林火对北京平谷区油松林土壤化学性质的影响[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2019, 41(2): 29-40. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180339
引用本文: 刘冠宏, 李炳怡, 宫大鹏, 李伟克, 刘晓东. 林火对北京平谷区油松林土壤化学性质的影响[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2019, 41(2): 29-40. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180339
Liu Guanhong, Li Bingyi, Gong Dapeng, Li Weike, Liu Xiaodong. Effects of forest fire on soil chemical properties of Pinus tabuliformis forest in Pinggu District of Beijing[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2019, 41(2): 29-40. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180339
Citation: Liu Guanhong, Li Bingyi, Gong Dapeng, Li Weike, Liu Xiaodong. Effects of forest fire on soil chemical properties of Pinus tabuliformis forest in Pinggu District of Beijing[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2019, 41(2): 29-40. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180339

林火对北京平谷区油松林土壤化学性质的影响

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180339
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 31770696

详细信息
    作者简介:

    刘冠宏。主要研究方向:生态学。Email: liugh@bjfu.edu.cn  地址: 100083  北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学林学院

    责任作者:

    刘晓东,博士,教授。主要研究方向:生态学。Email: xd-liu@bjfu.edu.cn  地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S714.27;S762.1

Effects of forest fire on soil chemical properties of Pinus tabuliformis forest in Pinggu District of Beijing

  • 摘要: 目的以北京平谷区油松林火烧迹地为研究对象,通过在不同火烧强度下养分含量、相关性关系以及主要养分比值的分析,探讨林火对北京平谷区油松林土壤化学性质的影响,以了解火烧后土壤养分资源的重新配置及其空间性差异,对火烧迹地的植被恢复和管理提供参考。方法按照过火强度,划分轻度火烧(L)、中度火烧(M)、重度火烧(H)3个强度的林地作为研究样地,选择相邻未过火林地(C)作为对照样地。调查和测定火灾发生后0.5年的0~10 cm、10~20 cm、20~30 cm的土壤养分含量,采用单因素、双因素方差分析、相关性分析、LSD事后检验,研究不同火烧强度下土壤有机碳(SOC)、全氮(TN)、速效氮(AN)、铵态氮(NH4+-N)、硝态氮(NO3--N)、全钾(TK)、速效钾(AK)、全磷(TP)、速效磷(AP)含量、碳氮比(C/N)、氮磷比(N/P)的变化。结果(1) 不同火烧强度在相同土层下,林火对TN影响不显著(P>0.05),对TP影响显著(P < 0.05),对其他所有指标影响极显著(P < 0.01);不同土层下,林火对TK影响不显著,对其他所有指标影响极显著(P < 0.01);各土壤养分在土壤中呈垂直分布特点。(2)火烧使土壤SOC、TN、AN含量呈现明显下降趋势,使TP、AP,TK,AK含量整体呈现增加趋势。(3)轻度过火使土壤NH4+-N、NO3--N含量下降;中度过火使土壤表层NH4+-N含量升高、NO3--N含量下降,下层NH4+-N含量下降、NO3--N含量升高;重度过火使土壤NH4+-N含量升高,土壤表层NO3--N含量升高,下层NO3--N含量下降。(4)主要元素C、N、P三者之间相关性极显著(P < 0.01),TK与其他土壤养分相关性较不明显(P>0.05)。(5)C/N比在轻中度过火后少量下降,在重度过火后上升。N/P过火后皆下降,且过火前随土层深度增加,过火后相反,随土层深度降低。结论林火对土壤化学性质的影响极其重要,相同强度火烧会对不同土层土壤化学性质影响有区别,不同强度火烧使各土壤化学性质产生显著变化,对土壤养分资源的重新配置产生重要影响。

     

  • 图  1  不同火烧强度下土壤有机碳与土层深度的关系

    不同大写字母表示同一样地不同土层之间差异显著(P<0.05),不同小写字母表示不同样地同一土层之间差异显著(P<0.05)。下同。

    Figure  1.  Relationship between soil organic carbon and soil depth under different fire intensities

    Different capital letters mean significant difference in different soil layers of the same sample plot at P<0.05 level,different lowercase letters mean significant difference in the same soil layer of different sample plots at P<0.05 level. The same below.

    图  2  不同火烧强度下土壤TN、AN、NH4+-N、NO3--N与土层深度的关系

    Figure  2.  Relationship between TN、AN、NH4+-N、NO3--N and soil depth under different fire intensities

    图  3  不同火烧强度下土壤TP、AP与土层深度的关系

    Figure  3.  Relationship between TP, AP and soil depth under different fire intensities

    图  4  不同火烧强度下土壤TK、AK与土层深度的关系

    Figure  4.  Relationship between TK, AK and soil depth under different fire intensities

    表  1  样地概况

    Table  1.   General situation of sample plots

    样地
    Sample plot
    火烧程度
    Fire intensity
    平均胸径
    Mean DBH/cm
    平均树高
    Mean tree height/m
    平均熏黑高度
    Mean scorch height/m
    树木死亡率
    Tree mortality/%
    1 重度Severe 28.32 11.00 11.00 100
    2 重度Severe 23.70 11.27 11.27 100
    3 重度Severe 25.24 12.32 12.32 100
    4 中度Moderate 24.90 11.13 2.50 56.58
    5 中度Moderate 21.15 10.66 3.22 55.76
    6 中度Moderate 24.17 11.99 3.73 61.80
    7 轻度Light 26.00 13.18 0.79 14.06
    8 轻度Light 28.34 10.76 0.84 13.17
    9 轻度Light 23.70 12.03 0.76 14.88
    10 对照Control 24.68 12.50 0 0
    11 对照Control 24.31 15.81 0 0
    12 对照Control 19.68 11.00 0 0
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同火强度和土层对土壤化学性质的交互影响分析

    Table  2.   Interaction between different fire intensities and soil layers on soil chemical properties

    指标
    Index
    Sig.
    火烧强度(Ⅰ)
    Fire intensity (Ⅰ)
    土层(Ⅱ)
    Soil layer(Ⅱ)
    Ⅰ×Ⅱ
    SOC < 0.01 < 0.01 0.55
    TN 0.15 < 0.01 0.83
    TP 0.02 < 0.01 0.36
    TK < 0.01 0.052 0.02
    NH4+-N < 0.01 < 0.01 0.49
    NO3--N < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01
    AN < 0.01 < 0.01 0.08
    AP < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01
    AK < 0.01 < 0.01 0.046
    注:SOC.土壤有机碳;TN.全氮;TP.全磷;TK.全钾;NH4+-N.铵态氮;NO3--N.硝态氮;AN.速效氮;AP.速效磷;AK.速效钾。下同。Notes: SOC,soil organic carbon; TN, total nitrogen; TP,total phosphorus; TK,total potassium; NH4+-N,ammoniacal nitrogen; NO3--N,nitrate nitrogen; AN,available nitrogen; AP,available phosphorus; AK,available potassium. The same below.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  土壤各养分相关系数

    Table  3.   Coefficients among soil physiochemical characteristics

    SOC TN TP TK NH4+-N NO3--N AN AP AK
    SOC 1
    TN 0.967** 1
    TP 0.736** 0.746** 1
    TK -0.288 -0.268 -0.093 1
    NH4+-N 0.678** 0.626** 0.642** 0.081 1
    NO3--N 0.522** 0.464** 0.356* -0.288 0.409* 1
    AN 0.843** 0.768** 0.530** -0.344* 0.641** 0.574** 1
    AP 0.530** 0.531** 0.677** -0.071 0.543** 0.152 0.460** 1
    AK 0.683** 0.665** 0.739** 0.091 0.801** 0.330* 0.611** 0.827** 1
    注:*表示相关性达到显著水平(P < 0.05);**表示相关性达到极显著水平(P < 0.01)。Notes: * indicates the correlation is significant (P < 0.05); ** indicates the correlation is extremely significant (P < 0.01).
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  土壤养分相关比值特征

    Table  4.   Correlation ratio characteristics of soil nutrients

    指标
    Index
    土层Soillayer/cm 火烧强度Fire intensity Sig.
    C L M H 火烧强度
    Fire intensity(Ⅰ)
    土层
    Soil layer(Ⅱ)
    Ⅰ×Ⅱ
    C/N 0~10 12.00±0.71Aa 10.53±0.47Ac 11.71±0.17Ab 12.27±1.10Aa < 0.01 0.104 0.858
    10~20 11.55±0.20Aa 10.23±0.90Ab 10.52±1.33Ab 11.74±0.50Aa
    20~30 11.79±0.58Aa 10.40±1.15Ab 10.46±0.69Ab 11.38±0.65Aa
    N/P 0~10 9.79±1.97Aa 8.18±2.14Ab 7.16±0.27Ac 7.77±0.50Abc < 0.01 0.616 0.817
    10~20 10.13±0.57Aa 7.65±1.60Ab 6.78±1.54Ab 6.98±0.29Ab
    20~30 10.73±1.39Aa 7.03±1.49Ab 6.14±0.44Ac 6.98±0.85Ab
    注:数据为平均值±标准差。Note:data is mean+SD.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2018-10-25
  • 修回日期:  2018-12-04
  • 刊出日期:  2019-02-01

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