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一种欠驱动双板分离式采摘器的研制

罗海风 谭月胜

罗海风, 谭月胜. 一种欠驱动双板分离式采摘器的研制[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2018, 40(12): 110-116. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180374
引用本文: 罗海风, 谭月胜. 一种欠驱动双板分离式采摘器的研制[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2018, 40(12): 110-116. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180374
Luo Haifeng, Tan Yuesheng. Research on an under actuated dual separation plate harvestor[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2018, 40(12): 110-116. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180374
Citation: Luo Haifeng, Tan Yuesheng. Research on an under actuated dual separation plate harvestor[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2018, 40(12): 110-116. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180374

一种欠驱动双板分离式采摘器的研制

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180374
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金青年项目 51705022

教育部中央高校基本科研业务基金项目 2017ZY46

详细信息
    作者简介:

    罗海风,博士,讲师。主要研究方向:林业机械。Email:luohaifeng@bjfu.edu.cn  地址:100083北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学工学院

  • 中图分类号: S776

Research on an under actuated dual separation plate harvestor

  • 摘要: 目的采摘是林果种植中的劳动密集型作业,果园中的果实采收环境较为复杂,我国采摘机具的行业研究相对薄弱,采摘机器人等高科技装备在当前果园采摘中的实际应用还具有一定的局限性,因此发展辅助人工摘果装备具有切实的社会和经济意义。方法针对球形带梗果实,以苹果为例提出了果梗锁定—枝果分离的采摘方法,并设计完成了相应采摘器。采摘器整体结构为欠驱动布局,以曲柄摇杆机构为原型设计了果梗锁定机构,构造了固定板、浮动板结构的双板枝果分离机构,利用摇杆滑块机构作为手持驱动单元,利用钢丝和绕线丝轮的传动方法将滑块的输出运动首先传递到曲柄摇杆机构,驱动结构和尺寸对称的两套果梗锁定机构对果梗进行锁定,果梗锁定后继续驱动浮动板向下移动与固定板分离完成摘果。结果分析了驱动单元和果梗锁定机构的几何参数,驱动单元的手柄转动5.5°即可使摘果器完成87°的果梗锁定和50 mm的双板分离动作,果梗锁定机构在锁定果梗时处于反向死点位置,保证了锁定的可靠性。应用Adams软件仿真了采摘器的果梗锁定和双板分离动作,验证了采摘器欠驱动结构的设计可行性,并对输出曲线在锁定果梗过程中的振动情况进行了解释;对采摘过程中的驱动力进行了仿真。采摘器样机实验顺利完成了锁定果梗—枝果分离的顺序采摘动作。结论枝果分离的采摘方法和欠驱动双板分离式采摘器在实际应用中具有可操作性,可用于发展人工辅助采摘机具。

     

  • 图  1  果梗锁定-枝果分离法

    Figure  1.  Stem locking-branch fruit separation method

    图  2  采摘器结构

    Figure  2.  Structure of harvestor

    图  3  采摘器传动机构

    1.锁定杆Locker bar;2.果梗Peduncle;3.复位拉簧T2 Tension spring T2;4.丝轮2 Wheel 2;5.压簧T3 Compressed spring T3;6.浮动板Float plate;7.固定板Fixed plate;8.丝轮1 Wheel 1;9.复位拉簧T1 Tension spring T1;10.钢丝S2 Steel wire S2;11.钢丝S1 Steel wire S1l01.浮动板锁定机构曲柄杆长Crank length of the float locking mechanism;l02.浮动板锁定机构连杆杆长Connector bar length of the float locking mechanism;l03.浮动板锁定机构摇杆杆长Rocker bar length of the float locking mechanism;l04.浮动板锁定机构机座杆长Base bar length of the float locking mechanism;θ1.浮动板锁定机构曲柄转角Crank angle of the float locking mechanism;θ2.浮动板锁定机构连杆转角Connector bar angle of the float locking mechanism;θ3.浮动板锁定机构摇杆转角Rocker bar angle of the float locking mechanism;r.丝轮2半径Radius of the wheel 2;s1.钢丝S1位移Displacement of S1s2.钢丝S2位移Displacement of S2s3.浮动板位移Displacement of the float plate;l1.摇杆手柄杆长Length of the rocker handle bar;l2.连杆杆长Length of the connector bar;d0.滑块偏距Offset of the slider;α1.摇杆手柄角度Angle of the rocker handle;α2.连杆角度Angle of the connect bar;s.滑块位移Displacement of the slider.

    Figure  3.  Transmission of harvestor

    图  4  摘果器动作逻辑顺序

    Figure  4.  Logical motion sequence of the harvestor

    图  5  锁定杆和浮动板期望运动

    Figure  5.  Expected motion of the lock bar and float plane

    图  6  摘果器仿真模型

    Figure  6.  Simulation model of the harvestor

    图  7  采摘器传动机构时域响应曲线

    Figure  7.  Response curve of harvestor transmission in time domain

    图  8  摘果器驱动关节驱动力仿真曲线

    Figure  8.  Simulation cure of drive force of the harvestor drive joint

    图  9  摘果器样机

    Figure  9.  Prototype of the harvestor

    图  10  摘果器样机采摘实验

    Figure  10.  Prototype experiment of the harvestor

    表  1  摘果器样机部分参数

    Table  1.   Parameters of the harvestor

    摘果器长Length of the harvestor/cm 摘果器宽Width of the harvestor/cm 摘果器高Height of the harvestor/cm 摘果器质量Mass of the harvestor/kg 双板宽Width of dual- plate/mm 双板厚度Thickness of dual- plate/mm 双板分离距离Distance of dual- plate/mm
    16 8 167 1.62 45 10 50
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2018-10-10
  • 修回日期:  2018-11-23
  • 刊出日期:  2018-12-01

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