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采伐对吉林蛟河阔叶红松林生态功能的短期影响

李明鲁 吴兆飞 邱华 张春雨 赵秀海

李明鲁, 吴兆飞, 邱华, 张春雨, 赵秀海. 采伐对吉林蛟河阔叶红松林生态功能的短期影响[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2019, 41(9): 40-49. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180442
引用本文: 李明鲁, 吴兆飞, 邱华, 张春雨, 赵秀海. 采伐对吉林蛟河阔叶红松林生态功能的短期影响[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2019, 41(9): 40-49. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180442
Li Minglu, Wu Zhaofei, Qiu Hua, Zhang Chunyu, Zhao Xiuhai. Short-term effects of tending felling on ecological services of mixed broadleaved-Korean pine forests at Jiaohe in Jilin Province, northeastern China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2019, 41(9): 40-49. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180442
Citation: Li Minglu, Wu Zhaofei, Qiu Hua, Zhang Chunyu, Zhao Xiuhai. Short-term effects of tending felling on ecological services of mixed broadleaved-Korean pine forests at Jiaohe in Jilin Province, northeastern China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2019, 41(9): 40-49. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180442

采伐对吉林蛟河阔叶红松林生态功能的短期影响

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180442
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划重点专项(2017YFC0504005),国家自然科学基金项目(31670643)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    李明鲁。主要研究方向:森林生态学。Email:472770838@qq.com 地址:100083 北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学林学院

    责任作者:

    赵秀海,教授,博士生导师。主要研究方向:森林经营理论与技术。Email:zhaoxh@bjfu.edu.cn 地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S718.55

Short-term effects of tending felling on ecological services of mixed broadleaved-Korean pine forests at Jiaohe in Jilin Province, northeastern China

  • 摘要: 目的为研究采伐强度对森林生态系统功能的影响,对森林生态服务功能评价体系建立提供意见,并对今后阔叶红松林经营管理提出建议和对策。方法以吉林蛟河林业实验管理局阔叶红松林为研究对象,分别设置采伐强度为0(对照CK)、15%(弱度采伐LT)、35%(中度采伐MT)、50%(强度采伐HT)的4块样地。采用国家林业和草原局森林生态功能评价标准,选择森林群落结构、森林蓄积量、树种结构、森林自然度、植被总覆盖度、林分平均高、枯枝落叶厚度、郁闭度8个因子作为森林生态功能的评价因子,对比了不同强度采伐样地在采伐前、采伐后和采伐4年后生态功能的差异。结果(1)采伐前,各样地生态功能指数均为0.83,采伐后,不同强度采伐样地生态功能指数出现显著差异,未采伐(0.83) > 弱度采伐(0.71) > 中度采伐(0.67) > 强度采伐(0.53)。4年后,各采伐样地生态功能指数差异逐渐减小,其中弱度采伐样地的生态功能指数恢复到采伐前状态(0.83),中度采伐样地和强度采伐样地也都有不同程度的改善,生态功能指数分别为0.77和0.61。(2)林分蓄积年均增长率随着采伐强度呈先增加后减少的趋势。(3)采伐对阔叶红松混交林优势种的生长起到了一定促进作用,而对林分树高的生长并没有产生明显的促进作用。结论低强度采伐后,森林生态功能能在短时间内恢复,并表现出更好的生长潜力,提高了人类对木材资源的利用,使森林综合效益得到改善;而大强度的采伐会严重破坏森林生态系统的稳定性,影响生态系统功能,使其在短时间内无法恢复。综合考虑,采伐强度在15%比较合理,建议不超过35%。

     

  • 图  1  林分蓄积动态变化

    CK为对照;LT为弱度采伐;MT为中度采伐;HT为强度采伐。下同。CK, control; LT, light treatment; MT, moderate treatment; HT, high treatment. The same below.

    Figure  1.  Dynamic changes of stand stock

    图  2  采伐前后4块样地主要树种蓄积量占比

    PK, Pinus koraiensis; AM, Acer mono; UD, Ulmus davidiana var. japonica; JA, Juglans mandshurica; FM, Fraxinus mandshurica; TA, Tilia amurensis; QM, Quercus mongolica; BP, Betula platyphylla.

    Figure  2.  Proportion of main tree species in four sample plots before and after thinning

    图  3  采伐前后综合得分

    Figure  3.  Comprehensive score Y before and after thinning

    图  4  采伐前后生态功能指数的变化

    Figure  4.  Changes of ecological function index K before and after thinning

    表  1  森林生态功能评价因子及类型划分标准

    Table  1.   Evaluation factors and classification criteria of forest ecological function

    评价因子
    Evaluation factor
    类型划分标准 Classification criteria权重
    Weight
    森林蓄积量/(m3·hm−2) Forest stock volume/(m3·ha−1) ≥ 150 50 ~ 149 < 50 0.2
    森林自然度 Forest naturalness Ⅰ,Ⅱ Ⅲ,Ⅳ 0.15
    森林群落结构 Forest community structure 完整结构
    Complete structure
    较完整结构
    Relatively complete structure
    简单结构
    Simple structure
    0.15
    树种结构 Tree species structure 6,7 3,4,5 1,2 0.15
    植被总覆盖度 Total vegetation coverage ≥ 70% 50% ~ 69% < 50% 0.1
    郁闭度 Canopy closure ≥ 0.70 0.40 ~ 0.69 0.20 ~ 0.39 0.1
    平均树高 Average tree height/m ≥ 15.0 5.0 ~ 14.9 < 5.0 0.1
    枯枝落叶厚度 Litter layer thickness/cm 厚(≥ 10) Thick (≥ 10) 中(5 ~ 9) Medium (5−9) 薄(< 5) Thin (< 5) 0.05
    注:竹林的蓄积量记为Ⅱ。Note: the volume of bamboo forest is recorded as Ⅱ.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  树种结构类型划分标准及代码表

    Table  2.   Tree species structure classification standards and code table

    树种结构类型 Structural types of tree species  划分标准 Classification standard    代码 Code
    针叶纯林 Coniferous pure forest 某一针叶树种蓄积量 ≥ 90%
    Volume of single coniferous species ≥ 90%
    1
    阔叶纯林 Broadleaved pure forest 某一阔叶树种蓄积量 ≥ 90%
    Volume of single broadleaved species ≥ 90%
    2
    针叶相对纯林 Coniferous relative pure forest 某一针叶树种蓄积占65% ~ 90%
    Single coniferous species account for 65%–90%
    3
    阔叶相对纯林 Broadleaved relative pure forest 某一阔叶树种蓄积占65% ~ 90%
    Single broadleaved species account for 65%–90%
    4
    针叶混交林 Coniferous mixed forest 针叶树种总蓄积 ≥ 65%
    Total volume of coniferous species ≥ 65%
    5
    针阔混交林 Mixed broadleaf-conifer forest 针叶树种或阔叶树种总蓄积量占35% ~ 65%
    Total volume of broadleaved or coniferous species account for 35%–65%
    6
    阔叶混交林 Broadleaved mixed forest 阔叶树种总蓄积量 ≥ 65%
    Total volume of broadleaved species ≥ 65%
    7
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  采伐前后森林自然度、森林群落结构、平均树高等因素的变化

    Table  3.   Changes of forest naturalness, forest community structure and average tree height before and after thinning

    时间 Time评价因子 Evaluation factorCKLTMTHT
    采伐前 Before thinning 森林自然度 Forest naturalness 1 1 1 1
    森林群落结构 Forest community structure 1 1 1 1
    植被总覆盖度 Total vegetation coverage 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9
    郁闭度 Canopy closure 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9
    平均树高 Average tree height/m 9.7 9.6 9.7 8.8
    枯枝落叶厚度 Litter layer thickness/cm 2.5 2.7 2.6 2.6
    采伐后 After thinning 森林自然度 Forest naturalness 1 2 2 3
    森林群落结构 Forest community structure 1 1 1 2
    植被总覆盖度 Total vegetation coverage 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.6
    郁闭度 Canopy closure 0.9 0.8 0.6 0.5
    平均树高 Average tree height/m 9.7 9.8 9.9 8.9
    枯枝落叶厚度 Litter layer thickness/cm 2.8 2.6 2.7 2.5
    2015复测 2015 retest 森林自然度 Forest naturalness 1 1 2 3
    森林群落结构 Forest community structure 1 1 1 1
    植被总覆盖度 Total vegetation coverage 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9
    郁闭度 Canopy closure 0.9 0.8 0.6 0.6
    平均树高 Average tree height/m 11.9 11.1 10.9 9.9
    枯枝落叶厚度 Litter layer thickness/cm 2.7 2.5 2.6 2.3
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2018-12-30
  • 修回日期:  2019-07-01
  • 网络出版日期:  2019-09-09
  • 刊出日期:  2019-09-01

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