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皆伐与刀耕火种后常绿−落叶阔叶混交林的动态恢复机制

冯广 李俊清 臧润国 艾训儒 姚兰 朱江 丁易

冯广, 李俊清, 臧润国, 艾训儒, 姚兰, 朱江, 丁易. 皆伐与刀耕火种后常绿−落叶阔叶混交林的动态恢复机制[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2019, 41(10): 1-10. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20190031
引用本文: 冯广, 李俊清, 臧润国, 艾训儒, 姚兰, 朱江, 丁易. 皆伐与刀耕火种后常绿−落叶阔叶混交林的动态恢复机制[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2019, 41(10): 1-10. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20190031
Feng Guang, Li Junqing, Zang Runguo, Ai Xunru, Yao Lan, Zhu Jiang, Ding Yi. Dynamics and mechanisms of natural restoration of evergreen-deciduous broadleaved mixed forest following clear cutting and slash-and-burn[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2019, 41(10): 1-10. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20190031
Citation: Feng Guang, Li Junqing, Zang Runguo, Ai Xunru, Yao Lan, Zhu Jiang, Ding Yi. Dynamics and mechanisms of natural restoration of evergreen-deciduous broadleaved mixed forest following clear cutting and slash-and-burn[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2019, 41(10): 1-10. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20190031

皆伐与刀耕火种后常绿−落叶阔叶混交林的动态恢复机制

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20190031
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划项目(2018-LY-048)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    冯广,博士生。主要研究方向:恢复生态学。Email:fengguang@bjfu.edu.cn  地址:100083北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学林学院

    责任作者:

    李俊清,教授。主要研究方向:恢复生态学。Email:lijq@bjfu.edu.cn  地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S718.52

Dynamics and mechanisms of natural restoration of evergreen-deciduous broadleaved mixed forest following clear cutting and slash-and-burn

  • 摘要: 目的皆伐与刀耕火种是对森林生态系统造成严重影响的人为干扰方式。本研究旨在比较常绿−落叶阔叶混交林在两种干扰后群落的动态恢复特征并分析其形成机制,以期为森林植被保育和林业生态建设提供参考。方法依托不同干扰后恢复20与40年群落内所设立的98个样地,在径级划分的基础上对群落基本特征采用物种多度格局、物种组成、稀疏化丰富度及多度进行描述,并运用多元统计方法分析上述特征在不同恢复群落间的差异性。结果不同恢复群落的多度与稀疏化丰富度均存在显著差异(P < 0.05)。在中、小径级植被当中,皆伐后恢复20年群落的多样性指数显著高于弃耕地恢复20年群落;不同恢复过程中植被多度的变化趋势不同,弃耕地恢复过程具有更明显的多度变化,且在不同径级中均达到显著水平。虽然不同恢复的20 ~ 40年过程中群落物种组成的变异性均达到极显著(P < 0.001),但小径级植被较能反映这种变异,同时也能反映物种生态对策的转变。此外,弃耕地恢复过程中上述特征更明显。物种多度格局关系显示,弃耕地恢复群落的优势种具有更明显的优势地位,而采伐恢复过程中物种间的多度差异明显减小。结论皆伐后的常绿−落叶阔叶混交林能在短期内展现较高的恢复速率,而弃耕地恢复则在短期受阻后才体现出该特点。这可能与干扰对生物与非生物资源的影响程度有关,表明刀耕火种对群落恢复的影响深远。此外,常绿−落叶阔叶混交林在经历干扰后物种组成的恢复缓慢,但具有一定的秩序。

     

  • 图  1  不同恢复群落的多度与稀疏化丰富度比较

    由左至右依次以小、中和大径级的植被为对象。***为P < 0.001; **为P < 0.01; *为P < 0.05。不同小写字母代表差异显著(P < 0.05)。Pictures ranged from left to right focus on plants with small, middle and large diameters, respectively. Statistical significance levels in Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test: ***, P < 0.001; **, P < 0.01; *, P < 0.05. Different lowercases in the multiple comparison analysis (Dunn’s test) represent significant difference (P < 0.05).

    Figure  1.  Comparison on the stem abundance and rarefied richness among different recovery communities

    图  2  物种组成的无度量多维标定排序

    由上至下依次以小、中和大径级植被为对象,由左至右分别以刀耕火种和皆伐后的恢复群落为对象。Pictures ranged from top to bottom focus on plants with small, middle and large diameters, respectively; the left and right pictures focus on the recovery communities after slash-and-burn and clear cutting events, respectively.

    Figure  2.  Ordination of nonmetric multidimensional scaling on species composition

    图  3  恢复过程中物种的多度变化

    图(a ~ f)展示对象的属性与图2一致。平均多度在样地水平上计算,其数值为原始值加1后的对数。红色虚线代表y = x(即物种在两个群落中的平均多度相同)。The attributes of objects in pictures (a−f) are the same as fig. 2. The mean (species) abundances, measured at the plot levels, are log-transformed after the original value + 1. The red dash lines represent the relationship of y = x (i.e. the mean abundances of species in two communities are identical).

    Figure  3.  Changes in species abundance along with ecological restoration progress

    图  4  不同恢复群落的物种多度格局

    由左至右依次以小、中和大径级的植被为对象。Pictures ranged from left to right focus on plants with small, middle and large diameters, respectively.

    Figure  4.  Patterns of species abundance distribution among different recovery communities

    表  1  恢复群落中不同径级植被的个体及物种数量

    Table  1.   Number of individual and species of plants in different DBH classes within given recovery communities

    恢复群落
    Recovery community
    小径级 Small diameter class
    (1 cm ≤ DBH ≤ 5 cm)
    中等径级 Middle diameter class
    (5 cm < DBH < 10 cm)
    大径级 Large diameter class
    (DBH ≥ 10 cm)
    全部植被
    Overall plants
    个体数
    Number of
    individual
    物种数
    Number of
    species
    个体数
    Number of
    individual
    物种数
    Number of
    species
    个体数
    Number of
    individual
    物种数
    Number of
    species
    个体数
    Number of
    individual
    物种数
    Number of
    species
    20年次生林
    20-year-old secondary forest
    7 113 (77.4%) 138 (92.0%) 1 104 (12.0%) 85 (56.7%) 968 (10.5%) 59 (39.3%) 9 185 150
    40年次生林
    40-year-old secondary forest
    11 306 (74.8%) 153 (93.3%) 2 226 (14.7%) 97 (59.1%) 1 591 (10.5%) 74 (45.1%) 15 113 164
    20年伐后林
    20-year-old forest after cutting
    5 898 (77.0%) 145 (94.8%) 1 383 (18.1%) 69 (45.1%) 374 (4.9%) 46 (30.0%) 7 655 153
    40年伐后林
    40-year-old forest after cutting
    4 251 (77.4%) 152 (88.9%) 765 (13.9%) 91 (53.2%) 480 (8.7%) 68 (39.8%) 5 496 171
    注:括号中的数值代表数量所占该群落总数的比例。Note: values in brackets represent the proportion of amount within a given community.
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2019-01-20
  • 修回日期:  2019-06-20
  • 网络出版日期:  2019-09-18
  • 刊出日期:  2019-10-01

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