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不同抚育间伐方式对蒙古栎次生林空间结构的影响

胡雪凡 张会儒 周超凡 张晓红

胡雪凡, 张会儒, 周超凡, 张晓红. 不同抚育间伐方式对蒙古栎次生林空间结构的影响[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2019, 41(5): 137-147. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20190037
引用本文: 胡雪凡, 张会儒, 周超凡, 张晓红. 不同抚育间伐方式对蒙古栎次生林空间结构的影响[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2019, 41(5): 137-147. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20190037
Hu Xuefan, Zhang Huiru, Zhou Chaofan, Zhang Xiaohong. Effects of different thinning patterns on the spatial structure of Quercus mongolica secondary forests[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2019, 41(5): 137-147. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20190037
Citation: Hu Xuefan, Zhang Huiru, Zhou Chaofan, Zhang Xiaohong. Effects of different thinning patterns on the spatial structure of Quercus mongolica secondary forests[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2019, 41(5): 137-147. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20190037

不同抚育间伐方式对蒙古栎次生林空间结构的影响

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20190037
基金项目: “十三五”国家重点研发计划课题“长白山次生林抚育更新技术研究与示范”(2017YFC0504101)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    胡雪凡,博士生。主要研究方向:森林可持续经营。Email:hufanzi@163.com 地址:100091北京市海淀区香山路中国林业科学研究院资源信息研究所

    责任作者:

    张会儒,博士,博士生导师。主要研究方向:森林可持续经营。Email:huiru@ifrit.ac.cn 地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S753.7

Effects of different thinning patterns on the spatial structure of Quercus mongolica secondary forests

  • 摘要: 目的以长白山林区蒙古栎次生林为研究对象,分析基于目标树经营与传统经营的抚育间伐前后蒙古栎次生林空间结构主要指标及空间结构综合指数变化,评价不同抚育间伐方式对森林空间结构的影响。方法在吉林汪清设置9块面积均为1 hm2的蒙古栎次生林样地,随机区组进行3种处理,分别为传统经营(T1)、目标树经营密度1(T2)和目标树经营密度2(T3)。利用混交度、角尺度、大小比数和密集度4个林分空间结构指标,分析间伐前后目标树及林分的空间结构变化,并利用4个指标构建空间结构综合指数(CSSI)来综合评价蒙古栎次生林的空间结构对不同抚育间伐的响应。结果结果表明,从干扰树间伐对目标树的影响来看,目标树的混交度、大小比数和密集度3个指标的改善明显,角尺度改善不明显;从不同抚育间伐方式对林分空间结构的影响来看,3种处理均提高了林分内种间隔离程度、降低了密集程度,使林分空间分布格局趋向于随机分布,对林木大小分化度的影响不明显;根据CSSI综合评价得知:3种处理均提高了林分的空间结构综合指数,提高幅度为T3 > T2 > T1。结论干扰树间伐优化了目标树的空间结构,3种处理的抚育间伐均优化了林分的空间结构。基于目标树经营的抚育间伐对空间结构的改善程度优于传统的抚育间伐,T3处理,也即目标树选择密度为100株/hm2时采取的抚育间伐最有利于目标树和林分的空间结构优化。

     

  • 图  1  采伐前林木分布示意图

    Figure  1.  Distribution sketch map of trees before thinning

    图  2  林分空间结构综合指数(CSSI)变化情况

    Figure  2.  Changes of comprehensive index of spatial structure (CSSI)

    表  1  样地基本概况

    Table  1.   General description of sample plot

    样地号
    Sample plot No.
    海拔
    Altitude/m
    坡位
    Slope position
    坡度
    Slope gradient/(°)
    郁闭度
    Canopy density
    密度/(株·hm− 2
    Stand density/(tree·ha− 1)
    树种组成
    Species composition
    处理
    Treatment
    1705中 Middle80.707666蒙1桦1杨1红1其他T1
    2738中 Middle80.718964蒙2杨1桦1色1椴1红T2
    3721中 Middle70.721 038 5蒙2桦1色1杨1椴T3
    4741中 Middle80.839924蒙2桦1色1椴1红1其他T2
    5637中 Middle80.859985蒙2桦1红1黑1其他T1
    6635中 Middle80.881 047 5蒙3桦1黑1红T3
    7677中 Middle70.908006蒙1黑1胡1水1其他T1
    8685中 Middle70.779296蒙2桦1黑1其他T3
    9703中 Middle60.879954蒙3桦1杨2其他T2
    注:蒙代表蒙古栎,桦代表白桦,杨代表大青杨,红代表红松,色代表色木槭,椴代表紫椴,落代表长白落叶松,黑代表黑桦,胡代表胡桃楸,水代表水曲柳,其他代表其他树种。Notes: 蒙 stands for Quercus mongolica, 桦 stands for Betula platyphylla, 杨 stands for Populus ussuriensis, 红 stands for Pinus koraiensis, 色 stands for Acer mono, 椴 stands for Tilia tuan, 落 stands for Larix olgensis, 黑 stands for Betula dahurica, 胡 stands for Juglans mandshurica, 水 stands for Fraxinus mandschurica, 其他 stands for other tree species.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  蒙古栎次生林林分基本信息

    Table  2.   General information of oak secondary forest

    样地号
    Sample plot No.
    胸径 DBH/cm树高 Tree height/m优势平均高
    Mean dominant height/m
    蓄积
    Volume/m3
    最小 Min.平均 Average最大 Max.最小 Min.平均 Average最大 Max.
    15.014.666.02.011.029.622.2150.72
    25.013.759.10.511.224.121.5162.31
    35.013.055.71.3 10.2528.521.6172.00
    45.013.650.21.510.925.821.2176.10
    55.013.150.91.5 8.922.421.5162.30
    65.012.858.53.211.531.122.2173.91
    75.014.352.21.4 9.824.921.8154.45
    85.014.370.13.112.624.222.9179.20
    95.014.158.22.211.026.522.7186.90
    注:采用汪清林业局一元立木材积表[28]计算单木材积和林分蓄积,选取样地最高的5株林木计算优势高平均值。Notes: volume of wood was calculated by the tree volume table of Wangqing Forestry Bureau, and the mean dominant height was calculated by choosing five highest trees in each sample plot.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  采伐前后目标树结构单元的各个空间结构指标

    Table  3.   Spatial structure indexes of target trees before and after thinning

    抚育间伐方式
    Thinning treatment
    类型
    Type
    M平均值
    Mean uniform angle index
    W平均值
    Mean neighborhood pattern
    U平均值
    Mean uniform angel index
    C平均值
    Mean crowding degree
    T2伐前 Before thinning0.615 50.529 20.184 00.415 1
    伐后 After thinning0.638 30.524 10.177 70.409 4
    T3伐前 Before thinning0.509 90.533 20.226 70.407 4
    伐后 After thinning0.529 70.536 00.216 70.395 3
    注:M代表混交度;W代表角尺度;U代表大小比数;C代表密集度;T2代表目标树经营密度1;T3代表目标树经营密度2。下同。Notes: M represents for mingling degree, W represents for uniform angel index, U represents for neighborhood comparison, C represents for crowding degree, T2 represents for target tree management with density 1, T3 represents for target tree management with desity 2. Same as below.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  不同抚育间伐方式林分采伐前后${ M} $频率分布及林分平均混交度(${\overline M} $

    Table  4.   M frequency distribution and mean mingling degree of different thinning treatments before and after thinning

    抚育间伐方式
    Thinning treatment
    伐前 Before thinning伐后 After thinning
    频率分布 Frequency distribution$\scriptstyle {\overline M} $ 频率分布 Frequency distribution$\scriptstyle {\overline M} $
    0.000.250.500.751.000.000.250.500.751.00
    T10.159 20.190 10.242 10.248 00.160 50.515 10.150 30.192 00.252 70.243 30.161 70.518 5
    T20.071 00.173 10.250 00.277 90.228 00.604 70.062 30.165 30.253 90.289 50.229 00.614 4
    T30.107 90.193 90.258 50.255 10.184 60.553 70.092 20.194 50.267 30.259 20.186 90.563 5
    注:T1代表传统经营措施。Note: T1 represents for traditional management.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  不同抚育间伐方式林分采伐前后${W} $频率分布及林分平均角尺度(${\overline W} $

    Table  5.   W frequency distribution and mean value of stand uniform angel index of different thinning treatments before and after thinning

    抚育间伐方式
    Tninning treatment
    伐前 Before thinning伐后 After thinning
    频率分布 Frequency distribution$\scriptstyle {\overline W} $ 频率分布 Frequency distribution$\scriptstyle {\overline W} $
    0.000.250.500.751.000.000.250.500.751.00
    T10.005 90.167 80.553 30.196 10.077 00.542 60.006 70.165 10.558 60.196 80.072 80.540 9
    T20.003 60.179 90.580 90.163 70.071 90.530 10.004 20.185 00.583 60.165 30.061 80.523 9
    T30.004 90.164 20.578 20.191 40.061 20.535 00.006 10.168 00.584 50.184 30.057 00.529 5
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  不同抚育间伐方式林分采伐前后${U} $频率分布及林分平均大小比数(${\overline U} $

    Table  6.   U frequency distribution and mean value of neighborhood comparison of different thinning treatments before and after thinning

    抚育间伐方式
    Thinning treatment
    伐前 Before thinning伐后 After thinning
    频率分布 Frequency distribution$\scriptstyle {\overline U}$ 频率分布 Frequency distribution$\scriptstyle {\overline U}$
    0.000.250.500.751.000.000.250.500.751.00
    T10.207 20.196 10.205 90.194 70.196 10.494 10.212 30.196 80.202 20.195 40.193 40.490 2
    T20.207 70.204 60.194 20.192 00.201 40.493 70.209 80.197 20.201 40.190 60.200 90.493 9
    T30.204 60.206 50.191 90.201 20.195 80.494 30.209 80.201 60.193 00.198 60.197 00.492 9
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  不同抚育间伐方式林分采伐前后$ { C} $频率分布及林分平均密集度($ {\overline C} $

    Table  7.   C frequency distribution and mean value of crowding degree of different thinning treatments before and after thinning

    抚育间伐方式
    Thinning treatment
    伐前 Before thinning伐后 After thinning
    频率分布 Frequency distribution$\scriptstyle {\overline C} $ 频率分布 Frequency distribution$\scriptstyle {\overline C} $
    0.000.250.500.751.000.000.250.500.751.00
    T10.059 90.138 80.166 40.221 70.413 20.338 30.063 30.140 80.175 20.217 00.403 60.336 3
    T20.021 60.072 40.141 20.216 30.548 60.391 80.023 90.078 20.158 30.221 50.518 00.389 3
    T30.018 50.074 80.163 80.221 10.521 90.384 10.021 90.080 40.183 30.235 70.478 60.378 1
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2019-01-15
  • 修回日期:  2019-03-02
  • 网络出版日期:  2019-04-30
  • 刊出日期:  2019-05-01

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