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模拟不同烹饪温度对红松籽油品质的影响及主成分分析

王凤娟 童新雨 夏晓雨 符群 郭庆启

王凤娟, 童新雨, 夏晓雨, 符群, 郭庆启. 模拟不同烹饪温度对红松籽油品质的影响及主成分分析[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2019, 41(11): 116-124. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20190115
引用本文: 王凤娟, 童新雨, 夏晓雨, 符群, 郭庆启. 模拟不同烹饪温度对红松籽油品质的影响及主成分分析[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2019, 41(11): 116-124. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20190115
Wang Fengjuan, Tong Xinyu, Xia Xiaoyu, Fu Qun, Guo Qingqi. Effects of simulated different cooking temperatures on the quality of Korean pine seed oil and principal component analysis[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2019, 41(11): 116-124. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20190115
Citation: Wang Fengjuan, Tong Xinyu, Xia Xiaoyu, Fu Qun, Guo Qingqi. Effects of simulated different cooking temperatures on the quality of Korean pine seed oil and principal component analysis[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2019, 41(11): 116-124. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20190115

模拟不同烹饪温度对红松籽油品质的影响及主成分分析

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20190115
基金项目: 中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金项目(2572018BA09),哈尔滨市科技局科技创新人才项目(2017RAQXJ012);黑龙江省教育厅规划课题(GBC1317007)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    王凤娟。主要研究方向:森林食品资源利用。Email:1335451608@qq.com  地址:150040 黑龙江省哈尔滨市香坊区和兴路东北林业大学林学院

    责任作者:

    郭庆启,博士,副教授。主要研究方向:天然产物化学。Email:qingqiguo@vip.163.com  地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: Q949.93;S789.7;S791.247

Effects of simulated different cooking temperatures on the quality of Korean pine seed oil and principal component analysis

  • 摘要: 目的以模拟不同烹饪温度处理后的红松籽油为材料,测定其脂肪酸组成和理化性质,并采用主成分分析法进行综合评价。方法对不同烹饪温度预处理后的红松籽油通过气相质谱(GC-MS)联用测定脂肪酸组分。根据国标测定热处理前后的红松籽油理化性质。利用SPSS 19.0软件对不同温度处理后红松籽油的脂肪酸组成进行主成分分析。结果随着热处理温度的升高红松籽油的羰基价和酸值显著上升(P < 0.05),过氧化值先升高后降低,180 ℃达到最大值9.79 mmol/kg,碘值和皂化值与对照组相比分别降低31.78%、22.86%。高温加热后红松籽油脂肪酸的种类和含量出现显著变化,不饱和脂肪酸以及亚油酸和皮诺敛酸含量下降,而反式脂肪酸的种类和含量随烹饪温度的升高而增多,加热过程中共生成5种新的脂肪酸(9t-C18∶1(反式油酸)、(9c,11t)-C18∶2、(10t,12c)-C18∶2、14-甲基-C16∶0、10c-C17∶1)。对不同温度处理后红松籽油的脂肪酸组成进行主成分分析,共提取出2个主成分,方差贡献率分别为83.80%、10.43%。结论升高温度会降低红松籽油品质和改变脂肪酸组成。低温热处理时,红松籽油的理化指标及其脂肪酸不发生显著变化,随着温度的升高,红松籽油中多不饱和脂肪酸含量下降,反式脂肪酸的种类和含量增加。

     

  • 图  1  不同温度处理后红松籽油的羰基价

    Figure  1.  Carbonyl values of Korean pine seed oil after different temperature treatment

    图  2  不同温度处理后红松籽油的过氧化值

    Figure  2.  Peroxide values of Korean pine seed oil after different temperature treatment

    图  3  不同温度处理后红松籽油的皂化值

    Figure  3.  Saponification values of Korean pine seed oil after different temperature treatment

    图  4  不同温度处理后红松籽油的碘值

    Figure  4.  Iodine values of Korean pine seed oil after different temperature treatment

    图  5  不同温度处理后红松籽油的酸值

    Figure  5.  Acid values of Korean pine seed oil after different temperature treatment

    图  6  不同温度处理后红松籽油脂肪酸组成的碎石图

    Figure  6.  Scree plot of fatty acid composition of Korean pine seed oil after different temperature treatment

    表  1  不同温度处理后红松籽油脂肪酸的种类和含量

    Table  1.   Types and contents of fatty acids in Korean pine seed oil after treatment at different temperatures %

    脂肪酸 Fatty acid对照组 Control group不同温度 Different temperatures/℃
    90120150180210240
    C14∶0(肉豆蔻酸 Yristic acid) 0.25a 0.14b 0.13b 0.12b 0.13b 0.10b 0.07b
    C15∶0 0.11a 0.08b 0.07c 0.06d 0.06d 0.07c 0.05e
    C16∶0(棕榈酸 Palmitic acid) 4.64a 4.35b 3.80c 3.63d 3.49e 3.11f 3.00g
    14-甲基-C16∶0 (14-methyl-C16∶0 0.13c 0.11d 0.21b 0.21b 0.35a
    C16∶1(棕榈油酸 Palmitoleic acid) 0.56a 0.50b 0.41c 0.38d 0.36e 0.34f 0.31g
    C17∶1 0.32a 0.30b 0.28c 0.27d 0.23e 0.23e 0.20f
    10c-C17∶1 0.15b 0.27a
    C18∶0(硬脂酸 Stearic acid) 3.17g 3.29f 3.39e 3.34d 3.72c 3.94b 4.12a
    C18∶1(油酸 Oleic acid) 22.95 20.39b 19.67c 18.40d 17.42e 17.35f 16.84g
    9t-C18∶1 0.13c 0.16b 0.19a 0.19a
    (9c,12c)-C18∶2(亚油酸 Linoleic acid) 46.27a 45.13b 44.23c 41.02d 35.65e 32.10f 30.44g
    (9c,11t)-C18∶2 0.01b 0.02ab 0.04a
    (10t,12c)-C18∶2 0.31
    (5c,9c,12c)-C18∶3(皮诺敛酸 Pinolenic acid) 13.48a 13.14b 13.08c 12.34d 12.54e 11.48f 11.13g
    C20∶0 0.50a 0.49b 0.47c 0.45d 0.45d 0.32e 0.31f
    11c-C20∶1 0.70d 0.71d 0.68d 3.03a 2.98b 2.72c 2.87b
    (11c,14c)-C20∶2 0.48a 0.43a 0.34b 0.23c 0.21d 0.21d 0.21d
    (5c,11c,14c)-C20∶3 4.04a 4.01a 3.29c 3.54b 3.27c 3.02d 2.96d
    C20∶4 2.72a 2.53b 2.46c 2.26d 2.09e 1.86f 1.72g
    C22∶0 1.12a 1.10ab 1.07b 0.79c 0.72d 0.61e 0.53f
    C24∶0 0.96a 0.95a 0.62b 0.43c 0.39d 0.31e 0.37d
    UFA 91.52 86.98 84.26 81.54 74.81 69.53 70.31
    注:同行小写字母不同表示差异显著(P < 0.05);UFA为不饱和脂肪酸。Notes: differences in peer lowercase letters indicate significant differences (P < 0.05); UFA refers to unsaturated fatty acids.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同温度处理后红松籽油脂肪酸的相关性分析

    Table  2.   Correlation analysis of fatty acids in Korean pine seed oil after different temperature treatment

    变量
    Variable
    C16∶0
    (X1)
    C18∶0
    (X2)
    C18∶1
    (X3)
    (9c, 12c)-
    C18∶2 (X4)
    (5c, 9c, 12c)-
    C18∶3 (X5)
    (5c, 11c, 14c)-
    C20∶3 (X6)
    C20∶4
    (X7)
    SFA
    (X8)
    MUFA
    (X9)
    PUFA
    (X10)
    UFA/SFA
    (X11)
    MUFA/SAF
    (X12)
    PUFA/SFA
    (X13)
    C16∶0
    (X1)
    1
    C18∶0
    (X2)
    − 0.908** 1
    C18∶1
    (X3)
    0.956** − 0.847* 1
    (9c, 12c)-
    C18∶2 (X4)
    0.929** − 0.977** 0.882* 1
    (5c, 9c, 12c)-
    C18∶3 (X5)
    0.935** − 0.925** 0.865* 0.946** 1
    (5c,11c,14c)-
    C20∶3 (X6)
    0.961** − 0.883* 0.876* 0.868* 0.846* 1
    C20∶4
    (X7)
    0.965** − 0.967** 0.929** 0.986** 0.973** 0.893* 1
    SFA
    (X8)
    0.493 − 0.912** 0.959** 0.551 0.949** 0.629 0.979** 1
    MUFA
    (X9)
    0.408 − 0.209 0.523 0.213 0.172 0.431 0.267 0.371 1
    PUFA
    (X10)
    0.947** − 0.976** 0.897* 0.998** 0.958** 0.887* 0.992** 0.965** 0.237 1
    UFA/SFA
    (X11)
    − 0.959** 0.824* − 0.902** − 0.877* − 0.937** − 0.880* − 0.926** − 0.964** − 0.231 − 0.898* 1
    MUFA/SFA
    (X12)
    − 0.888* 0.914** − 0.799 − 0.239 − 0.960** − 0.811* − 0.946** − 0.909** 0.040 − 0.943** 0.922** 1
    PUFA/SFA
    (X13)
    − 0.816* 0.502 − 0.819* − 0.577 − 0.675 − 0.753 − 0.673 − 0.800* − 0.539 − 0.617 0.856* 0.590 1
    注:*P < 0.05,**P < 0.01;SFA为饱和脂肪酸,MUFA为单不饱和脂肪酸,PUFA为多不饱和脂肪酸,UFA 为不饱和脂肪酸。Notes: *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01; SFA refers to saturated fatty acids, MUFA refers to mnounsaturated fatty acids, PUFA refes to polyunsaturated fatty acids, UFA refers to unsaturated fatty acids.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  主成分相关矩阵的特征值

    Table  3.   Eigenvalue of principal component correlation matrix

    成分
    Composition
    初始特征值
    Initial feature value
    提取平方和载入
    Extracting square sum loading
    旋转平方和载入
    Rotation square sum and loading
    方差特征值
    Variance
    characteristic
    value
    方差贡献率
    Variance
    contribution
    rate/%
    累积方差贡献率
    Cumulative
    variance
    contribution
    rate/%
    方差特征值
    Variance
    characteristic
    value
    方差贡献率
    Variance
    contribution
    rate/%
    累积方差贡献率
    Cumulative
    variance
    contribution
    rate/%
    方差特征值
    Variance
    characteristic
    value
    方差贡献率
    Variance
    contribution
    rate/%
    累积方差贡献率
    Cumulative
    variance
    contribution
    rate/%
    Z1 10.90 83.80 83.80 10.90 83.80 83.80 9.61 73.90 73.90
    Z2 1.36 10.43 94.23 1.36 10.43 94.23 2.64 20.33 94.23
    Z3 0.51 3.93 98.16
    Z4 0.15 1.17 99.33
    Z5 0.06 0.45 99.78
    Z6 0.03 0.22 100.00
    注:提取方法为主成分分析,已提取2个主成分。
    Notes: the extraction method is based on principal component analysis and 2 principal components have been extracted.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  主成分的特征向量

    Table  4.   Characteristic vector of principal component

    项目 Item主成分 Principal component
    Z1Z2
    C16∶0X1 0.059 0.099
    C18∶0X2 −0.136 0.110
    C18∶1X3 0.020 0.186
    (9c,12c)-C18∶2X4 0.132 −0.094
    (5c,9c,12c)-C18∶3X5 0.129 −0.087
    (5c,11c,14c)-C20∶3X6 0.044 0.121
    C20∶4X7 0.113 −0.039
    SFA(X8 0.072 0.067
    MUFA(X9 −0.212 0.621
    PUFA(X10 0.124 −0.071
    UFA/SFA(X11 −0.084 −0.026
    MUFA/SFA(X12 −0.177 0.216
    MUFA/SFA(X13 0.060 −0.344
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2019-03-04
  • 修回日期:  2019-05-26
  • 网络出版日期:  2019-10-10
  • 刊出日期:  2019-11-01

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