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林龄和气候变化对三峡库区马尾松林蓄积量的影响

冯源 肖文发 朱建华 黄志霖 鄢徐欣 吴东

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林龄和气候变化对三峡库区马尾松林蓄积量的影响

    作者简介: 冯源,博士生。主要研究方向:生态系统管理。Email:flyh0901@163.com 地址:100091北京市海淀区香山路东小府1号中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所.
    通讯作者: 肖文发,研究员。主要研究方向:生态系统管理。Email:xiaowenf@caf.ac.cn 地址:同上. 
  • 中图分类号: S718.556

Effects of stand age and climate change on the volume of Pinus massoniana forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area of central China

  • 摘要: 目的 林龄增长和气候变化是影响森林蓄积量变化的关键因素,研究这两种因素对区域尺度森林蓄积的影响具有重要意义。方法 本文基于生态过程模型(3-PG)、森林资源规划设计调查数据及3种未来气候情景(BS、RCP4.5和RCP8.5),量化了林龄和气候变化对三峡库区马尾松林蓄积的影响。结果 2009—2050年林龄促使三峡库区马尾松林蓄积年均增长2.60 × 106 m3/a或2.60 m3/(hm2·a);而气候变化对蓄积生长的促进作用较小,年均增量为1.70 × 105 ~ 2.00 × 105 m3/a或0.17 ~ 0.20 m3/(hm2·a),相当于林龄影响的6.55% ~ 7.67%。林龄和气候变化对马尾松林蓄积生长的促进作用在三峡库区中部最强,而在库区南部最弱。林龄促进马尾松林单位面积蓄积年均增长最高和最低的地区分别是万州区和巴南区,对应值为4.54 和1.17 m3/(hm2·a)。气候变化对开州区单位面积蓄积年均增长的促进作用最高,为0.40 m3/(hm2·a),而对涪陵区的促进作用最低,为0.03 m3/(hm2·a)。结论 林龄和气候变化均促进马尾松林蓄积生长,其共同作用将使万州区和开州区马尾松林单位面积蓄积年均增量最高,而使巴南区蓄积年均增量最低。未来需重点关注巴南区马尾松林生长,通过加强抚育管理、调整林龄结构以维持区域森林资源增长。
  • 图 1  三峡库区马尾松林分布示意图

    Figure 1.  Distribution of Pinus massoniana forests in the TGRA

    图 2  三峡库区马尾松林的林龄结构

    Figure 2.  Stand age structure of Pinus massoniana forests in the TGRA

    图 3  2009—2050年三峡库区3种未来情景气候特征

    Figure 3.  Climate characteristics of 3 future scenarios in the TGRA during 2009 to 2050

    图 4  3-PG模拟值与样地实测蓄积的比较

    Figure 4.  Comparison between 3-PG model simulated volume and the plot measurement volume

    图 5  2009—2050年三峡库区马尾松林蓄积动态及自然驱动力的影响

    Figure 5.  Dynamics and the impacts of natural driving force on the volume of Pinus massoniana forests in the TGRA during 2009 to 2050

    图 6  自然驱动力对马尾松林蓄积影响的空间分布格局

    Figure 6.  Spatial distribution patterns of the effects of natural driving force on the Pinus massoniana forest volume

    图 7  自然驱动力对不同区县马尾松林蓄积的影响

    Figure 7.  Effects of natural driving force on the Pinus massoniana forest volume in different districts

    表 1  三峡库区马尾松林概况

    Table 1.  Description of Pinus massoniana forests in the TGRA

    不同尺度
    Different scale
    胸径范围
    DBH range/cm
    树高范围
    Tree height range/m
    林龄范围
    Stand age range/a
    林分密度/(株·hm−2
    Stand density/(tree·ha−1)
    面积/hm2
    Area/ha
    蓄积
    Volume/m3
    个数
    Number
    三峡库区马尾松林
    Pinus massoniana forests
    in the TGRA
    5.0 ~ 46.6 1.9 ~ 18.8 2 ~ 66 84 ~ 3 675 9.86 × 105 8.09 × 107 21 073
    典型小班
    Typical subclass
    5.0 ~ 46.6 1.9 ~ 18.8 2 ~ 66 105 ~ 3 214 0.03 ~ 36 17.0 ~ 494.6 566
    实测样地
    Measured plot
    6.1 ~ 23.0 5.1 ~ 20.0 15 ~ 52 975 ~ 3 475 0.04 ~ 0.06 31.4 ~ 366.4 41
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 2  3-PG模型参数修正值

    Table 2.  Modified 3-PG model parameters

    参数 Parameter值 Value来源 Source
    胸径2 cm时树叶与树干分配比 Foliage:stem partitioning ratio with DBH = 2 cm 0.346 9 F
    胸径20 cm时树叶与树干分配比 Foliage:stem partitioning ratio with DBH = 20 cm 0.064 7 F
    干生物量与胸径关系的常数值 Constant in the relation of stem mass and DBH 0.137 9 F
    干生物量与胸径关系的幂值 Power in the relation of stem mass and DBH 2.343 6 F
    净初级生产量分配给根的最大比例 Maximum fraction of NPP to roots 0.35 F
    净初级生产量分配给根的最小比例 Minimum fraction of NPP to roots 0.25 [22]
    生长最低气温 Minimum temperature for growth/℃ 0 [18]
    生长最适气温 Optimum temperature for growth/℃ 17.5 [18]
    生长最高气温 Maximum temperature for growth/℃ 40 [18]
    fq = 0.5时的水分亏缺比 Moisture ratio deficit for fq = 0.5 0.5 [18]
    水分亏缺比的幂值 Power of moisture ratio deficit 9 D
    大树的死亡速率 /(%·a− 1)Mortality rate for large tree/(%·year− 1) 1 D
    死亡响应模型 Shape of mortality response 1 D
    林分密度为1 000株/hm2时最大立木树干生物量/(kg·株− 1
    Max. stem mass per tree when stand density was 1 000 tree/ha/(kg·tree− 1)
    300 D
    自疏函数中的幂值 Power in self-thinning rule 1.5 D
    每株死木叶生物量损失比例 Fraction mean single-tree foliage biomass lost per dead tree 0 [18]
    每株死木根生物量损失比例 Fraction mean single-tree root biomass lost per dead tree 0.2 [16]
    每株死木干生物量损失比例 Fraction mean single-tree stem biomass lost per dead tree 0.2 [16]
    林龄为0时的比叶面积 Specific leaf area at stand age was 0 6.4 [23]
    成熟叶的比叶面积 Specific leaf area for mature leaves/(m2·kg− 1) 3.7 [23]
    比叶面积为(SLA0 + SLA1)/2时的林龄/a Stand age at which specific leaf area was (SLA0 + SLA1)/2/year 3 [23]
    消光系数 Extinction coefficient for absorption of PAR by canopy 0.5 D
    冠层量子效率 Canopy quantum efficiency/(mol·mol− 1) 0.033 [18]
    净初级生产力/总初级生产力 Ratio of NPP/GPP 0.47 D
    最小冠层导度 Minimum canopy conductance/(m·s− 1) 0 [14]
    最大冠层导度 Maximum canopy conductance/(m·s− 1) 0.02 [14]
    最大冠层导度的LAI LAI for maximum canopy conductance 3 [18]
    定义气孔对饱和水汽压差的响应 Defines stomatal response to VPD/(1·mBar− 1) 0.05 [18]
    冠层边界层导度 Canopy boundary layer conductance/(m·s− 1) 0.2 [24]
    树干材积关系中常数值 Constant in the stem volume relationship 0.000 181 4 F
    树干材积关系中胸径的幂值 Power of DBH in the stem volume relationship 2.352 F
    树干材积关系中材积的幂值 Power of stocking in the stem volume relationship 1 F
    注:F为拟合参数;D为默认参数。 Notes: F means fitting parameters; D means default parameters.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 3  2009—2050年3种气候情景的三峡库区马尾松林蓄积

    Table 3.  Volumes of Pinus massoniana forests under 3 climate scenarios in the TGRA during 2009 to 2050

    情景
    Scenario
    蓄积 Volume/(106·m3)单位面积蓄积/(m3·hm− 2) Volume per hectare/(m3·ha− 1)
    20092050平均值
    Mean
    年均增量
    Annual average increment
    20092050平均值
    Mean
    年均增量
    Annual average increment
    BS 48.22 153.51 130.26 2.60 48.89 155.65 132.08 2.60
    RCP4.5 160.50 134.52 2.78 162.74 136.40 3.97
    RCP8.5 161.71 135.33 2.81 163.96 137.21 4.00
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 4  林龄及气候变化对三峡库区马尾松林蓄积的影响

    Table 4.  Effects of stand age and climate change on Pinus massoniana forest volume in the TGRA

    效应
    Effect
    蓄积 Volume/(106·m3)单位面积蓄积/(m3·hm− 2) Volume per hectare/(m3·ha− 1)
    林龄的影响
    Effect of stand age
    气候变化影响
    Effect of climate change
    林龄的影响
    Effect of stand age
    气候变化影响
    Effect of climate change
    2009—2050期间总效应
    Total effects during 2009 to 2050
    105.29 6.99 ~ 8.19 106.76 7.09 ~ 8.31
    2009—2050期间年均效应
    Annual average effects during 2009 to 2050
    2.60 0.17 ~ 0.20 2.60 0.17 ~ 0.20
    下载: 导出CSV
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