Forest quality improvement has become an important topic in the current context of vigorously promoting the construction of ecological civilization, and will be the goal and task of the forest industry for a long time in the future. Forest management is the fundamental way to improve forest quality. There is an urgent need to clarify the theoretical basis and technical system of precise improvement of forest quality. What are the evaluation indicators of forest quality? How to improve forest quality based on ecological and management theory? The evaluation indicators of forest quality were reviewed by literature analysis. The ecological and forestry bases of quality improvement were summarized and analyzed from the aspects of forest disturbance theory, succession theory, dominant ecological factors, niche principle, biodiversity principle and edge effect principle. It is considered that there are hierarchical and objective correlations among the indexes, and the core is the attributes of forest ecosystem itself. A framework of evaluation index system was put forward. The technical system of forest quality precise improvement was constructed, including matching species with the site, prediction of forest growth and harvest, forest management planning, etc., to provide a basis for precise improvement of forest quality in China.