Objective This paper aims to explore adaptive strategies of natural Qiongzhuea tumidinoda stalk under different soil water and nutrient conditions. We studied the changes of stalk anatomical structure of Q. tumidinoda in habitats with different soil thickness to provide theoretical guidance for the cultivation of processing timber forest of Q. tumidinoda.
Method In this paper, we used redundant analysis and Monte Carlo test methods to analyze the relationship between stalk anatomical structure characteristics of Q. tumidinoda and soil nutrients and water in three soil layers of thin soil (0−40 cm), medium soil (0−80 cm) and thick soil layer (0−120 cm).
Result(1) With the increase of soil moisture and nutrient content, the stalk anatomy of Q. tumidinoda had a significant decreasing trend of basic tissue ratio and vascular bundle density (P < 0.05). The ratio of transmission tissue, fiber tissue, length and width of vascular bundle showed an obvious increasing trend (P < 0.05), i.e. compared with the habitats in medium and thick soil layers, the vascular bundles of bamboo stalk in thin soil layers had important adaptability characteristics of small shape and large density. (2) Among three types of soil thickness habitats, the variation coefficient and plasticity index of Q. tumidinoda stalk tissue proportions and vascular bundle size in thin soil habitats were the largest, i.e. compared with the habitats in medium and thick soil layers, the vascular bundles of bamboo stalk in the habitats with thin soil layers had stronger regulation ability to adapt to the environment with low moisture and nutrients. (3) The stalk anatomical structure of Q. tumidinoda was affected by different degrees of soil moisture and nutrients (P < 0.05). Significance of single soil factor on the stalk anatomical structure of Q. tumidinoda was sequentially followed as total potassium > hydrolyzed potassium > available potassium > available phosphorus > total phosphorus > total nitrogen > water content > organic carbon > pH.
Conclusion The difference in soil moisture and nutrient content is the root cause of stalk anatomical plasticity of Q. tumidinoda. Stalk anatomical plasticity makes Q. tumidinoda forming adaptive differences in different soil thickness habitats. The obvious plasticity of the size and density of bamboo vascular bundles is an important adaptation characteristic of Q. tumidinoda to soil factors. Anatomical characteristics of bamboo stalks and their adaptation plasticity play an important ecological role in adapting Q. tumidinoda to soil thickness heterogeneity.