ObjectivePut species diversity protection as the goal, bird habitat construction as the breakthrough point, recommend methods and strategies were put forward for promoting country park landscape quality.
MethodAfter the survey of bird species being conducted in Longquan Lake area, some target species of birds were selected. Through the study and analysis of the ecological habits of the target species, the need for habitat was clarified. Vertical and horizontal space of bird habitat suitability index system was constructed, including water type, habitat area, water bank form, waterfront buffer zone, plant coverage, terror distance,water depth and plant height. These indices were analyzed and summarized to draw a scientific and rational country park landscape plan.
ResultA total of 23 target species of birds were identified and their habitats were about 20.3 hectares, including 11.4 hectares of water area habitats and 8.9 hectares of land area habitats. Water area habitats had six zones: the surface area of water in each zone was between 2.6 and 5.8 hectares. The coverage of aquatic plants was between 30% and 65%. The flush distance was 50 meters; the average water depth was between 0.8 and 2.5 meters. The average height of aquatic plants was 0.3 and 1.8 meters. Land habitat also had six zones: arbor coverage of the waterfront buffer area in each zone was between 10% and 16%, shrub coverage was between 35% and 44% and herb coverage was between 40% and 55%.The average plant height was 8.6 to 22.5 meters. Herb ranged from 12 to 31 species; the flush distance was 50 meters too.
Conclusion(1) The index system of bird habitat suitability was constructed and the construction strategy was proposed, which could provide theoretical support and practical guidance for the planning and design of country parks. (2) Country parks should have different sizes, rich functions, winding natural slope revetment and a certain depth of water space; plant landscape should not only meet birds’ requirements for water area, near-shore buffer zone, vegetation coverage, community composition and height, but also enhance the richness of ground cover. Park roads and sites should adopt a strategy of near-natural materials and low bird disturbance. (3) During the planning and design of country parks, attention should be paid not only to the demand of birds for habitat and the relationship between different species of birds, but also to meet the needs of human leisure and recreation, so as to realize the harmonious coexistence of man and birds.