Objective This study analyzed the evolution of ecosystem pattern in the Kubuqi Desert of northern China and its driving forces, clarified the degree of influence of different driving factors on the changes of ecosystem pattern, and then proposed targeted improvement measures. The research results can provide scientific basis and decision support for the ecological protection and high-quality development of the Kubuqi Desert.
Method In this paper, ecosystem change amplitude, annual change rate, dynamic degree and landscape pattern index were used to analyze the changes of ecosystem pattern, evolution characteristics and the contribution of main driving forces to ecosystem changes of Kubuqi Desert Area from 2000 to 2018.
Result (1) Grassland, bare land and farmland were the main ecosystems of Kubuqi Desert Area, accounting for 91.46% of the total area, while water area, construction land and forest land accounted for a small proportion. (2) During the study period, the area of farmland, grassland and construction land in Kubuqi Desert increased, while the area of woodland, water area and bare land decreased. The transformation and change of ecosystem was mainly from bare land to grassland, and grassland to bare land was also obvious. (3) The degree of landscape fragmentation and landscape diversity index increased during the study period. (4) Ecological protection and restoration was the primary driving force of ecosystem pattern evolution, with the contribution rate of 44.53%; land degradation was the second driving force of ecosystem change, with the contribution rate of 23.87%; the contribution rates of farmland expansion, urbanization construction and water resources development were 17.72%, 8.51% and 5.37%, respectively.
Conclusion In order to ensure the sustainable development of ecosystem in the Kubuqi Desert, ecological protection and restoration projects should be implemented scientifically. This requires the overall promotion of comprehensive management, systematic management and source management of “landscapes, forests, fields, lakes and sands”. The prevention of land degradation is the focus, and the development and utilization of cultivated land must be reasonable. By promoting a virtuous cycle of the ecosystem, regional ecological security can be maintained.