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引种栽培条件下大花黄牡丹二次枝及顶芽发育的初步研究

陈庭巧 袁涛 解梦雨 唐英 曾秀丽

陈庭巧, 袁涛, 解梦雨, 唐英, 曾秀丽. 引种栽培条件下大花黄牡丹二次枝及顶芽发育的初步研究[J]. 北京林业大学学报. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210144
引用本文: 陈庭巧, 袁涛, 解梦雨, 唐英, 曾秀丽. 引种栽培条件下大花黄牡丹二次枝及顶芽发育的初步研究[J]. 北京林业大学学报. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210144
Chen Tingqiao, Yuan Tao, Xie Mengyu, Tang Ying, Zeng Xiuli. Development of secondary branches and apical buds of Paeonia ludlowii under cultivated conditions[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210144
Citation: Chen Tingqiao, Yuan Tao, Xie Mengyu, Tang Ying, Zeng Xiuli. Development of secondary branches and apical buds of Paeonia ludlowii under cultivated conditions[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210144

引种栽培条件下大花黄牡丹二次枝及顶芽发育的初步研究

doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210144
基金项目: 国家林草局行业标准项目(2018-LY-054),北京园林绿化增彩延绿科技创新工程项目(2019-KJC-02-10)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    陈庭巧,博士。主要研究方向:花卉种质创新与育种。Email:823245508@qq.com 地址:100083 北京市清华东路35号北京林业大学园林学院

    责任作者:

    袁涛,博士,教授。主要研究方向:园林植物资源与育种、繁殖与栽培。Email:yuantao@bjfu.edu.cn 地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S685.11

Development of secondary branches and apical buds of Paeonia ludlowii under cultivated conditions

  • 摘要:   目的  确定引种栽培条件下的大花黄牡丹二次枝及其顶芽生长发育特点、引种地和原产地花芽分化进程,为大花黄牡丹的引种栽培和开发利用提供参考。  方法  以河南栾川引种栽培的成年株大花黄牡丹为对象,观测其二次枝及其顶芽的生长发育动态,并利用石蜡切片法观察大花黄牡丹在引种地(栾川和拉萨)及原产地(林芝)三地的二次枝顶芽花芽分化进程。  结果  (1)在栾川栽植的大花黄牡丹二次枝的生长期从5月上旬持续到9月中旬,其中5月上旬—6月上旬为生长高峰;但部分花枝的腋芽发育停滞,不形成二次枝。(2)栾川栽植的大花黄牡丹二次枝的生长可分为三类:第1类占比28.57%,于7月中旬形成顶芽并开始花芽分化,次年正常开花结实;第2类主要位于花枝/果枝中下部,形成顶芽但不分化,次年仅营养生长;第3类不形成顶芽,入冬后至次年春受冻干枯。(3)原产地林芝大花黄牡丹二次枝56.25%的顶芽可分化成花芽,次年开花结实,未观察到第3类二次枝。(4)在引种地和原产地,大花黄牡丹的二次枝顶芽分化过程一致,历经6个分化阶段后,最终形成含1个主花蕾、2 ~ 3个侧花蕾、腋芽原基和叶原基的复合芽,主花蕾较侧花蕾分化时间早;腋芽原基位于第3 ~ 4个叶原基基部,次年在花枝上发育形成新的二次枝。(5)引种地和原产地顶芽花芽分化起始时间和持续时间不同,引种地栾川分化起始晚,历时相对较长(88 ~ 97 d),引种地拉萨及原产地林芝花芽分化较早,历时相对较短(近70 d)。  结论  栾川引种栽培的大花黄牡丹花芽分化比例低,分化起始较晚,持续时间较长,但能够形成稳定且正常花芽分化、开花结实的二次枝,其自然环境可作为选择大花黄牡丹的引种栽培地点的参考。

     

  • 图  1  栾川大花黄牡丹二次枝发育

    A. 2019年9月4日取样于栾川,主花蕾萼片原基分化时,顶芽基部叶腋处可见腋芽原基;B. 2019年10月12日取样于栾川,腋芽原基分化出叶原基;C. 2020年5月6日取样于栾川,立蕾期花枝的腋芽;D&E. 2020年8月25日取样于栾川,果枝上部腋芽萌发形成二次枝,下部腋芽不萌发;ABP. 腋芽原基;ApB. 二次枝顶芽;Le. 叶原基;①. 花枝中上部腋芽;②. 花枝/果枝下部腋芽,逐渐膨大或加长,但不形成二次枝;③. ①发育成的二次枝。下同。A, sampled in Luanchuan on September 4, 2019, the axillary bud primordia in the basal leaf axils of the apical buds when the sepal primordium differentiates ; B, sampled in Luanchuan on October 12, 2019, the axillary bud primordia differentiates into leaf primordia; C, sampled in Luanchuan on May 6, 2020, the axillary buds at bud stage;D&E, sampled in Luanchuan on August 25, 2020, the axillary buds on upper part of the fruit branch develop into secondary branches, and the axillary buds on lower part are not germimated. ABP, axillary bud primordium; ApB, apical bud on secondary branch; Le, leaf primordia; ①, the secondary branch on the upper and middle part; ②, atagnant axillary bud,gradually enlarged or lengthened, failing to form a secondary branch; ③, the secondary branch developed from ①. The same below.

    Figure  1.  Development of secondary branch of Paeonia ludlowii in Luanchuan

    图  2  栾川大花黄牡丹二次枝示意图(A)及平均生长动态(B)

    BD. 二次枝基部直径;BL. 二次枝长度;FB. 果枝;Fr. 果实;④. 上部二次枝;⑤. 下部二次枝。BD, base diameter of secondary branch; BL, length of secondary branch; FB, fruit branch; Fr, frui; ④, upper secondary branch; ⑤, lower secondary branch.

    Figure  2.  Schematic diagram (A) and average growth dynamics (B) of secondary branches of P. ludlowii in Luanchuan

    图  3  栾川大花黄牡丹二次枝顶芽平均生长动态

    A. 形成顶芽的二次枝;B. 不形成顶芽的二次枝(2020年9月5日,栾川);C. 二次枝顶芽平均生长动态。A, secondary branch with apical bud; B, secondary branch that could not form apical bud (taken on September 5, 2020,Luanchuan); C, average growth dynamics of apical buds of secondary branches.

    Figure  3.  Average growth dynamics of apical buds of secondary branches of P. ludlowii in Luanchuan

    图  4  大花黄牡丹二次枝顶芽分化过程

    A. 花芽分化初期;B. 苞片原基分化期;C. 萼片原基分化期;D. 花瓣原基分化期;E. 雄蕊原基分化期;F. 雌蕊原基分化期;G. 侧花蕾晚于主花蕾完成分化;H. 顶芽内不同位置的侧蕾分化时期不同;I. 含主花蕾、侧花蕾、叶原基、腋芽原基的复合芽。GP. 生长点;Le. 叶片原基;Br. 苞片原基;Se. 萼片原基;Pe. 花瓣原基;St. 雄蕊原基;Sta. 雄蕊:Pi. 雌蕊原基;MFB. 主花蕾;LFB. 侧花蕾;LFB1.顶芽基部向上第1个侧花蕾;LFB2. 顶芽基部向上第2个侧花蕾。A, early stage of flower bud differentiation; B, bract primordium differentiation period; C, Sepal primordium differentiation period; D, Petal primordium differentiation period; E, stamen primordium differentiation period; F, pistillode primordium differentiation period; G, the lateral flower-bud differentiated later than the main flower-bud; H, different position of lateral flower buds; I, compound buds with main flower bud, lateral flower buds, leaf primordium and axillary bud primordium. GP, growing point; Le, leaf primordium; Ax, axillary bud; Br, bract primordium; Se, sepal primordium; Pe, petal primordium; St, stamen primordium; Sta, staminode; Pi, pistil primordium; MFB, main flower bud; LFB, the lateral flower bud; LFB1, the first lateral flower bud; LFB2, the second lateral flower bud.

    Figure  4.  Differentiation process of the apical buds on the secondary branches of P. ludlowii

    表  1  大花黄牡丹二次枝顶芽性状

    Table  1.   Characteristics of the apical buds on secondary branches of P. ludlowii

    试验区 Test area二次枝和未发育的腋芽在花/果枝上的着生位置
    Implanting position of secondary branches and undeveloped axillary buds on flowering/fruiting branch
    第1类二次枝占比 Proportion of the type 1 secondary branch/%
    上 Upper中 Intermediate下 Lower
    不生成二次枝的腋芽数 Number of axillary buds that don,t develop into secondary branch第1类二次枝数 Number of the type 1 secondary branch第2类二次枝数 Number of the type 2 secondary branch第3类二次枝数 Nnumber of the type 3 secondary branch不生成二次枝的腋芽数 Number of axillary buds that don,t develop into secondary branch第1类二次枝数 Number of the type 1 secondary branch第2类二次枝数 Number of the type 2 secondary branch第3类二次枝数 Nnumber of the type 3 secondary branch不生成二次枝的腋芽数 Number of axillary buds that don,t develop into secondary branch第1类二次枝数 Number of the type 1 secondary branch第2类二次枝数 Number of the type 2 secondary branch第3类二次枝数 Nnumber of the type 3 secondary branch
    栾川
    Luanchuan
    0 18 10 2 1 2 7 0 16 0 14 0 28.57
    林芝
    Nyingchi
    0 30 0 0 0 1 5 0 14 5 9 0 56.25
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  大花黄牡丹顶芽主花蕾的分化进程

    Table  2.   Differentiation process of the main flower buds in apical buds of P. ludlowii

    试验区
    Test area
    取样年份
    Year of
    sampling
    叶原基形成结束时间
    Leaf primordium formation
    ending time
    花芽分化起始时间
    Initiation time of flower bud differentiation
    苞片原基
    Bract primordium
    萼片原基
    Sepal primordium
    花瓣原基
    Petal primordium
    雄蕊原基
    Stamen primordium
    雌蕊原基
    Pistil primordium
    栾川 Luanchuan 2019 7月26日
    July 26
    8月2日
    August 2
    9月4日
    September 4
    9月23日
    September 23
    10月12日
    October 12
    10月31日
    October 31
    2020 7月16日
    July 16
    7月26日
    July 26
    8月14日
    August 14
    9月10日
    September 10
    10月1日
    October 1
    10月11日
    October 11
    拉萨 Lhasa 2019 7月17日
    July 17
    7月21日
    July 21
    8月11日
    August 11
    8月25日
    August 25
    9月8日
    September 8
    9月23日
    September 23
    林芝 Nyingchi 2019 7月16日
    July 16
    7月23日
    July 23
    8月10日
    August 10
    8月23日
    August 23
    9月2日
    September 2
    9月20日
    September 20
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-04-19
  • 录用日期:  2022-05-23
  • 修回日期:  2021-07-27
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-05-28

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