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北京温榆河生态廊道春季鸟类物种构成与多尺度环境因子的关系

张梦园 冉呈程 滕雨欣 郝培尧 董丽

张梦园, 冉呈程, 滕雨欣, 郝培尧, 董丽. 北京温榆河生态廊道春季鸟类物种构成与多尺度环境因子的关系[J]. 北京林业大学学报. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210160
引用本文: 张梦园, 冉呈程, 滕雨欣, 郝培尧, 董丽. 北京温榆河生态廊道春季鸟类物种构成与多尺度环境因子的关系[J]. 北京林业大学学报. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210160
Zhang Mengyuan, Ran Chengcheng, Teng Yuxin, Hao Peiyao, Dong Li. Correlation between bird species composition and multi-scale environmental factors in spring in Wenyu River ecological corridor of Beijing[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210160
Citation: Zhang Mengyuan, Ran Chengcheng, Teng Yuxin, Hao Peiyao, Dong Li. Correlation between bird species composition and multi-scale environmental factors in spring in Wenyu River ecological corridor of Beijing[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210160

北京温榆河生态廊道春季鸟类物种构成与多尺度环境因子的关系

doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210160
基金项目: 北京市科技计划项目(D171100007217003),烟台经济技术开发区建设交通局项目(SDGP370698202102000398),国家自然科学基金项目(32171860)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    张梦园。主要研究方向:园林植物应用与园林生态。Email:mengyuanzhang@bjfu.edu.cn 地址:100083 北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学

    责任作者:

    董丽,博士,教授。主要研究方向:园林植物应用、植物景观规划设计、园林生态效益及生态修复。Email:dongli@bjfu.edu.cn 地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S731.2

Correlation between bird species composition and multi-scale environmental factors in spring in Wenyu River ecological corridor of Beijing

  • 摘要:   目的  城市化进程加剧了城市绿地的破碎化,严重威胁了城市鸟类多样性,河流生态廊道在鸟类栖息地保护方面起到重要作用。然而,各类群鸟类多样性受多尺度环境因子的共同影响,针对不同类群的城市生态廊道鸟类栖息地格局优化与栖息地营造亟待理论研究的支撑。本文在分析北京温榆河生态廊道春季鸟类物种构成特征的基础上,对景观格局、栖息地斑块和微栖息地3个尺度下的环境因子对各类群鸟类物种构成的影响进行综合分析,以期深入了解影响鸟类栖息地选择的环境因素,为城市鸟类多样性保护和城市河流生态廊道栖息地建设提供参考。  方法  于2019年春季对温榆河生态廊道内部鸟类物种构成和植物群落结构特征进行实地调研,并对流域栖息地类型进行目视解译和格局分析,通过冗余分析法(RDA)对鸟类物种构成特征与多尺度环境因子的相关性进行分析。  结果  50 ~ 200 m内的景观格局环境因子对廊道内鸟类总体物种构成解释度最高。鸣禽类群物种构成与微栖息地内的乔木均匀度、小范围内的水体、湿地面积以及较大范围内的草地、落叶林地相关指数相关;陆禽类群物种构成与耕地和灌丛相关;游禽和涉禽类群物种构成与较小范围内的水体面积、湿地面积相关;猛禽与湿地水体相关性强。相同生态类群下不同居留型鸟类与环境因子之间的相关关系存在差异。多数鸟类的多度与100 m范围内湿地面积、湿地最大斑块占比和湿地结合度以及2 000 m范围内水体分离度等指数正相关。  结论  不同类群鸟类与各环境因子的关系存在差异,但水体和湿地相关指数对河流生态廊道内各生态类群鸟类均有影响。在未来的城市生态廊道建设中,建议考虑不同类群鸟类的栖息地偏好,注重廊道内部湿地水体格局的优化,针对目标物种开展鸟类栖息地营造与保护工作。

     

  • 图  1  温榆河生态廊道栖息地分类及调查样点分布

    E. 常绿林地;D. 落叶林地;S.灌丛地;G.草地;WL.湿地;CR.耕地;WB.水域;R.道路;CO.建筑用地;O.其他用地。下同。E, evergreen forest land; D, deciduous forest land; S, shrub land; G, grassland; WL, wetland; CR, cropland; WB, water body; R, road; CO, construction land; O, other land. The same below.

    Figure  1.  Distribution of habitats and survey samples in Wenyu River ecological corridor

    图  2  温榆河生态廊道景观格局因子对各生态类群鸟类的解释度

    G-COHESION中,G表示草地,COHESION表示平均聚集度。其他指标同理,不逐一列出。In G-COHESION, G means grassland, COHESION means average aggregation. The same goes for other indicators, which are not listed individually.

    Figure  2.  Explanation degree of landscape pattern factors of Wenyu River ecological corridor to birds of various ecological groups

    图  3  温榆河生态廊道各生态类群鸟类与环境因子的RDA排序图

    Figure  3.  RDA ordination diagram of the relationship between ecological communities and environmental factors in Wenyu River ecological corridor

    表  1  温榆河生态廊道各尺度环境因子选取

    Table  1.   List of multi-scale environmental factors in Wenyu River ecological corridor

    分析尺度
    Analysis scale
    环境因子
    Environmental factor
    景观格局尺度
    Landscape pattern scale
    斑块数量(NP)、平均斑块面积(AMN)、平均形状指标(SMN)、辛普森多样性指数(SIDI)、辛普森均匀度指数(SIEI)、各栖息地类型总面积(CA)、最大斑块占比(LPI)、平均聚集度(CONTIGMN)、结合度(COHESION)、分离度(SPLIT)
    Number of patch (NP), mean patch area (AMN), mean shape index (SMN), Simpson’s diversity index (SIDI), Simpson’s evenness index (SIEI), total class area (CA), Max. patch proportion (LPI), mean contiguity index (CONTIGMN), cohesion index (COHESION), splitting index (SPLIT)
    栖息地斑块尺度
    Habitat patch scale
    类型(TYPE)、面积(AREA)、边缘周长比(PARA)、聚集指数(CONTIG)
    Patch type (TYPE), patch area (AREA), perimeter area ratio (PARA), contiguity index (CONTIG)
    微栖息地尺度
    Micro-habitat scale
    乔(T)灌(SH)草(HE)的平均高度(HM)、盖度(C)、丰富度(Rp)、Shannon-Wiener指数(H)、Pielou指数(J
    Average height (HM), coverage (C), richness (Rp), Shannon-Wiener index (H), and Pielou index (J) of trees (T), shrubs (SH) and grasses (HE)
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  温榆河生态廊道鸟类调查名录及物种频度

    Table  2.   List and frequency of birds in Wenyu River ecological corridor

    生态类群
    Ecological
    community
    代称
    Code
    name
    物种
    Species

    Order

    Family
    居留型
    Reside
    pattern
    繁殖期
    Breeding time
    频度
    Frequency/%
    鸣禽
    Songbird
    S-A 家燕 Hirundo rustica 雀形目 Passeriformes 燕科 Hirundinidae S 4—7月
    April to July
    12.00
    S-B 金腰燕 Cecropis daurica 雀形目 Passeriformes 燕科 Hirundinidae S 4—9月
    April to September
    3.75
    S-C 黄头鹡鸰 Motacilla citreola 雀形目 Passeriformes 鹡鸰科 Motacillidae S 5—7月
    May to July
    3.75
    S-D 白鹡鸰 Motacilla alba 雀形目 Passeriformes 鹡鸰科 Motacillidae S 4—7月
    April to July
    5.00
    S-E 黄鹡鸰 Motacilla tschutschensis 雀形目 Passeriformes 鹡鸰科 Motacillidae P 5—7月
    May to July
    3.75
    S-F 灰鹡鸰 Motacilla cinerea 雀形目 Passeriformes 鹡鸰科 Motacillidae S 5—7月
    May to July
    1.25
    S-G 树鹨 Anthus hodgsoni 雀形目 Passeriformes 鹡鸰科 Motacillidae P 6—7月
    June to July
    5.00
    S-H 白头鹎 Pycnonotus sinensis 雀形目 Passeriformes 鹎科 Pycnonotidae R 4—8月
    April to August
    15.00
    S-I 灰椋鸟 Spodiopsar cineraceus 雀形目 Passeriformes 椋鸟科 Sturnidae S 5—7月
    May to July
    17.50
    S-J 灰喜鹊 Cyanopica cyanua 雀形目 Passeriformes 鸦科 Corvidae R 5—7月
    May to July
    25.00
    S-K 喜鹊 Pica pica 雀形目 Passeriformes 鸦科 Corvidae R 3—5月
    March to May
    53.75
    S-L 黑喉石䳭 Saxicola maurus 雀形目 Passeriformes 鸫科 Turdidae P 5—7月
    May to July
    3.75
    S-M 乌鸫 Turdus merula 雀形目 Passeriformes 鸫科 Turdidae R 4—7月
    April to July
    3.75
    S-N 红喉姬鹟 Ficedula albicilla 雀形目 Passeriformes 鹟科 Muscicapidae S 5—7月
    May to July
    6.25
    S-O 棕头鸦雀 Sinosuthora webbiana 雀形目 Passeriformes 鸦雀科 Corvidae R 4—8月
    April to August
    3.75
    S-P 黄眉柳莺 Phylloscopus inornatus 雀形目 Passeriformes 莺科 Sylviidae S 5—8月
    May to August
    8.75
    S-Q 沼泽山雀 Poecile palustris 雀形目 Passeriformes 山雀科 Paridae R 4—6月
    April to June
    3.75
    S-R 远东山雀 Parus minor 雀形目 Passeriformes 山雀科 Paridae R 4—6月
    April to June
    1.25
    S-S 麻雀 Passer montanus 雀形目 Passeriformes 文鸟科 Ploceidae R 3—8月 March to August 47.50
    S-T 金翅雀 Carduelis sinica 雀形目 Passeriformes 燕雀科 Fringillidae R 3—8月 March to August 2.50
    S-U 黑尾蜡嘴雀 Eophona migratoria 雀形目 Passeriformes 燕雀科 Fringillidae S 5—7月
    May to July
    1.25
    S-V 白眉鹀 Emberiza tristrami 雀形目 Passeriformes 鹀科 Emberizidae P 5—7月
    May to July
    1.25
    S-W 芦鹀 Emberiza schoeniclus 雀形目 Passeriformes 鹀科 Emberizidae W 5—7月
    May to July
    2.50
    攀禽
    Scansorial bird
    SC-A 四声杜鹃 Cuculus micropterus 鹃形目 Cuculiformes 杜鹃科 Cuculidae S 5—7月
    May to July
    1.25
    SC-B 东方中杜鹃 Cuculus optatus 鹃形目 Cuculiformes 杜鹃科 Cuculidae S 5—7月
    May to July
    3.75
    SC-C 噪鹃 Eudynamys scolopaceus 鹃形目 Cuculiformes 杜鹃科 Cuculidae S 3—8月
    March to August
    1.25
    SC-D 冠鱼狗 Megaceryle lugubris 佛法僧目 Coraciiformes 翠鸟科 Alcedinidae R 5—6月
    May to June
    1.25
    SC-E 戴胜 Upupa epops 戴胜目 Upupiformes 戴胜科 Upupidae S 4—6月
    April to June
    3.75
    SC-F 星头啄木鸟 Dendrocopos canicapillus 鴷形目 Piciformes 啄木鸟科 Picidae R 4—6月
    April to June
    1.25
    SC-G 大斑啄木鸟 Dendrocopos major 鴷形目 Piciformes 啄木鸟科 Picidae R 4—5月
    April to May
    1.25
    SC-H 灰头绿啄木鸟 Picus canus 鴷形目 Piciformes 啄木鸟科 Picidae R 4—6月
    April to June
    8.75
    陆禽
    Terrestrial bird
    T-A 灰斑鸠 Streptopelia decaocto 鸽形目 Columbiformes 鸠鸽科 Columbidae R 4—8月
    April to August
    16.25
    T-B 山斑鸠 Streptopelia orientalis 鸽形目 Columbiformes 鸠鸽科 Columbidae R 4—7月
    April to July
    2.50
    T-C 珠颈斑鸠 Spilopelia chinensis 鸽形目 Columbiformes 鸠鸽科 Columbidae R 4—10月
    April to October
    3.75
    涉禽
    Wading bird
    W-A 苍鹭 Ardea cinerea 鹳形目 Ciconiiformes 鹭科 Ardeidae R 4—6月
    April to June
    7.50
    W-B 大白鹭 Ardea alba 鹳形目 Ciconiiformes 鹭科 Ardeidae S 4—7月
    April to July
    6.25
    W-C 白鹭 Egretta garzetta 鹳形目 Ciconiiformes 鹭科 Ardeidae S 5—7月
    May to July
    1.25
    W-D 夜鹭 Nycticorax nycticorax 鹳形目 Ciconiiformes 鹭科 Ardeidae S 4—7月
    April to July
    1.25
    W-E 白琵鹭 Platalea leucorodia 鹳形目 Ciconiiformes 鹮科 Threskiornithidae S 5—7月
    May to July
    1.25
    W-F 反嘴鹬 Recurvirostra avosetta 鸻形目 Charadriiformes 反嘴鹬科 Recurvirostridae P 5—7月
    May to July
    1.25
    W-G 红脚鹬 Tringa totanus 鸻形目 Charadriiformes 鹬科 Scolopacidae P 5—7月
    May to July
    1.25
    W-H 矶鹬 Actitis hypoleucos 鸻形目 Charadriiformes 鹬科 Scolopacidae S 5—7月
    May to July
    2.50
    W-I 红颈滨鹬 Calidris ruficollis 鸻形目 Charadriiformes 鹬科 Scolopacidae P 6—8月
    June to August
    2.50
    W-J 扇尾沙锥 Gallinago gallinago 鸻形目 Charadriiformes 鹬科 Scolopacidae P 5—7月
    May to July
    1.25
    W-K 金眶鸻 Charadrius dubius 鸻形目 Charadriiformes 鸻科 Charadriidae S 5—7月
    May to July
    3.75
    游禽
    Swimming bird
    SW-A 小䴙䴘 Tachbybaptus ruficollis 䴙䴘目 Podicipediformes 䴙䴘科 Podicipedidae R 5—7月
    May to July
    1.25
    SW-B 鸳鸯 Aix galericulata 雁形目 Anseriformes 鸭科 Anatidae P 4—6月
    April to June
    2.50
    SW-C 绿头鸭 Anas platyrhynchos 雁形目 Anseriformes 鸭科 Anatidae R 4—6月
    April to June
    10.00
    SW-D 红头潜鸭 Aythya ferina 雁形目 Anseriformes 鸭科 Anatidae P 4—6月
    April to June
    3.75
    猛禽
    Raptorial bird
    R-A 普通鵟 Buteo japonicus 隼形目 Falconiformes 鹰科 Accipitridae W 5—7月
    May to July
    1.25
    注:P. 旅鸟;R. 留鸟;S. 夏候鸟;W. 冬候鸟。下同。Notes: P, migrant bird; R, resident bird; S, summer migratory bird; W, winter migratory bird. The same below.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  温榆河生态廊道各尺度环境因子对鸟类的解释度

    Table  3.   Explanation degree of environmental factors on birds at different scales of Wenyu River ecological corridor %

    生态类群
    Ecological community
    解释度
    Explanation degree
    微栖息地尺度
    Micro-habitat scale
    栖息地斑块尺度
    Habitat patch scale
    景观格局尺度
    Landscape pattern scale/m
    501002005001 0001 5002 000
    鸣禽
    Songbird
    总体解释度
    Total explanation degree
    23.8 8.3** 63.8 67.0 70.5** 73.1 72.2 75.7* 70.3
    显著及极显著相关因子解释度 Explanation degree of highly significantly and significantly correlated factors 5.4 5.8 17.7 16.5 22.6 15.9 18.3 20.9 8.5
    攀禽
    Scansorial bird
    总体解释度
    Total explanation degree
    24.9 3.5 48.4 56.1 63.2 62.9 58.6 54.8 54.4
    显著及极显著相关因子解释度 Explanation degree of highly significantly and significantly correlated factors 5.1 2.2 3.4 2.2 7.1 2.3 3.2 5.4
    陆禽
    Terrestrial bird
    总体解释度
    Total explanation degree
    20.0 3.5 59.1 79.0** 74.9* 76.4 66.2 68.9 54.5
    显著及极显著相关因子解释度 Explanation degree of highly significantly and significantly correlated factors 7.4 20.5 52.4 20.5 16.8 7.3 13.4 3.9
    涉禽
    Wading bird
    总体解释度
    Total explanation degree
    13.1 8.4* 79.5* 74.7 66.2 74.0 75.1 70.7 62.2
    显著及极显著相关因子解释度 Explanation degree of highly significantly and significantly correlated factors 6.5 7.2 55.6 19.3 27.2 16.2 15.6 7.6 8.0
    游禽
    Swimming bird
    总体解释度 Total explanation degree 10.8 9.0 66.8 70.7 65.6 66.3 61.6 65.7 61.8
    显著及极显著相关因子解释度 Explanation degree of highly significantly and significantly correlated factors 5.7 6.6 23.4 17.4 16.8 16.8 8.7 5.6 17.4
    猛禽
    Raptorial bird
    总体解释度
    Total explanation degree
    9.7 4.5 80.1 98.1 90.6 85.3 84.1 94.6 91.8
    显著及极显著相关因子解释度 Explanation degree of highly significantly and significantly correlated factors 57.8 95.1 52.9 50.5 25.7 75.3 17.2
    鸟类
    Bird
    总体解释度
    Total explanation degree
    20.2 7.2* 64.4 68.5 69.3 71.8 70.2 71.0 65.5
    显著及极显著相关因子解释度 Explanation degree of highly significantly and significantly correlated factors 4.8 4.3 23.0 20.5 19.5 15.5 14.5 18.6 5.1
    注:**表示极显著相关(P < 0.01),*表示显著相关(P < 0.05)。Notes: ** stands for extremely significant correlation (P < 0.01); * stands for significant correlation (P < 0.05).
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  鸟类物种构成−环境因子RDA排序摘要

    Table  4.   RDA ordination summary of the relationship between bird diversity and environmental factors

    特征参数 Characteristic parameter第1轴 Axis 1第2轴 Axis 2第3轴 Axis 3第4轴 Axis 4
    特征值 Eigenvalue 0.112 7 0.052 9 0.039 7 0.030 7
    累计贡献率 Cumulative contribution rate/% 11.27 16.55 20.53 23.60
    相关系数 Correlation coefficient 0.923 3 0.879 4 0.918 4 0.821 9
    累积贡献率 Cumulative contribution rate/% 25.46 37.41 46.40 53.34
    所有典范轴的显著性测验 Significance test for all canonical ordination axes pseudo-F = 1.8, P = 0.002
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  环境因子对鸟类物种构成的影响

    Table  5.   Effects of environmental factors on bird diversity

    项目 Item解释度 Explanation degree/%贡献率 Contribution rate/%pseudo-FP
    100-WL-CA 6.9 13.3 5.8 0.002
    2000-WB-SPLIT 3.8 7.2 3.2 0.002
    100-WL-LPI 3.5 6.7 3.1 0.002
    50-WL-COHESION 2.6 5.0 2.3 0.002
    T-J 2.4 4.6 2.2 0.002
    100-WL-CONTIGMN 2.1 4.0 1.9 0.042
    100-WL-COHESION 3.1 5.9 2.9 0.002
    100-D-COHESION 2.1 4.0 2.0 0.022
    200-E-LPI 1.7 3.3 1.7 0.008
    200-O-SPLIT 1.7 3.3 1.7 0.010
    50-WB-CA 1.5 2.9 1.5 0.028
    AREA 1.5 2.8 1.5 0.030
    1000-G-LPI 1.3 2.6 1.3 0.068
    1000-CR-SPLIT 1.3 2.4 1.3 0.144
    200-O-COHESION 1.2 2.4 1.2 0.184
    200-O-LPI 1.2 2.4 1.2 0.190
    TYPE 1.2 2.4 1.3 0.140
    1000-SMN 1.1 2.2 1.1 0.270
    100-AMN 1.0 2.0 1.1 0.418
    1500-G-SPLIT 1.0 2.0 1.1 0.358
    1500-CR-CA 1.0 1.9 1.0 0.400
    1500-CR-LPI 1.0 2.0 1.1 0.416
    注:100-WL-CA中,100表示100 m范围内,WL表示湿地,CA表示总面积。其他指标同理,不逐一列出。下同。Notes: In 100-WL-CA, 100 means within 100 m range; WL means wetland; CA means total class area. The same goes for other indicators which are not listed individually. The same below.
    下载: 导出CSV
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