Objective In recent years, urban green space is increasingly fragmented because of urbanization, which seriously threatens urban bird diversity. River ecological corridor plays an important role in the protection of urban bird habitats. However, the diversity of different ecological community of birds is influenced by environmental factors at multiple scales. The habitat pattern optimization and habitat construction of birds in urban ecological corridors for specific ecological community need the support of theoretical research urgently. Based on the analysis of bird species composition in Beijing Wenyu River ecological corridor in spring, we comprehensively analyzed the effects of environmental factors on bird species composition of different ecological communities at three scales of landscape pattern, habitat patch and micro-habitat, in order to understand the impact of environmental factors on bird habitat selection, and provide reference for bird diversity protection and habitat construction of urban river ecological corridors.
Method In the spring of 2019, we conducted a field survey of bird species composition and plant community structure in the Wenyu River ecological corridor. Landscape pattern analysis was conducted after visual interpretation of the habitats in the corridor. Redundant analysis (RDA) was used to analyze the correlation between bird species composition and multi-scale environmental factors.
Result The pattern characteristics within 50−200 m had the highest interpretation for the overall composition of birds. The composition of songbirds was mainly related to the Pielou index of trees in the community, the area of water and wetland within a small range, and some indexes of grassland and deciduous forest within a large range. The composition of terrestrial bird was mainly related to cropland and shrub. The composition of swimming birds and wading birds had a strong correlation with water body area and wetland area within a small range. The composition of raptorial birds was associated with wetland waters. In same ecological community, the composition of different reside pattern birds had different correlations with environmental factors. Most bird abundance was positively correlated with wetland area, wetland largest patch index and wetland cohesion index within 100 m, and waterbody splitting index within 2 000 m.
Conclusion The relationship between birds of different ecological communities and various environmental factors is diverse, but the indices of water body and wetland have influence on birds of all ecological communities in the river ecological corridor. In the future construction of urban ecological corridors, we suggest to consider the habitat preferences of different bird communities, pay attention to the optimization of the habitat pattern of wetland water in corridors, and carry out the construction and protection of bird habitats for targeted species.