Objective Northern Shaanxi Province of northwestern China is an important area for the implementation of ecological restoration projects. This paper aims to reveal the spatial-temporal evolution and driving factors of habitat quality, then provide scientific reference for ecological construction.
Method Based on the land use data, the InVEST model was used to evaluate the habitat quality in the northern Shaanxi Province of northwestern China from 2000 to 2020, the influencing factors were analyzed by the single factor detection and interactive detection methods of geographic detectors.
Result (1) The land use structure in northern Shaanxi Province had changed significantly during the study period, cultivated land and unused land decreased by 3.83% and 1.91%, respectively. Grassland, forest land and construction land increased by 3.02%, 1.61% and 1.10%, respectively. The transfers of land use types were significantly different in varied periods, a large number of unused land was transformed into grassland from 1990 to 2000, while cultivated land was transformed into grassland and forest land after 2000. (2) The average value of habitat quality index in northern Shaanxi Province changed from 0.636 to 0.651 during the study period, with an increasing trend. The areas with high habitat quality were mainly distributed in woodland and grassland areas in the southern part, and the low value areas were mainly distributed in Mu Us Sandy Land in the northwestern part. The areas where the habitat quality grade increased were mainly distributed in the middle and northwest of the study area. (3) Land use type was the first factor affecting the temporal and spatial distribution of habitat quality, with the q value of 0.433. The interaction of any two factors on habitat quality was far greater than that of a single factor, natural factors and social factors dominated the temporal and spatial changes of habitat quality.
Conclusion The spatial and temporal changes of habitat quality in northern Shaanxi Province are closely related to the distribution of land use types. Optimizing land use structure and reducing the impact of human activities are of great significance to improve the habitat quality in northern Shaanxi Province.