Objective Bees, the main species of urban pollinators, have significant ecological service function. However, human activities and urbanization had led to a decline in the number and diversity of pollinators. Based on the bees vision model, we assessed the influence of floral color characteristics on the bees-attracted ability. The results could be useful for establishing a selecting indicator system for bees-friendly landscape plants and lay a foundation for maintaining the stability of urban ecosystem.
Method Taking the commonly used landscape plants in six green spaces of Beijing as the research objects, we used the floral reflectance spectrum measured by a spectrometer and bees vision model to analyze the floral characteristics, including color diversity and contrast against the background of flowering plants in spring and summer-autumn.
Result There were significant differences in the floral characteristics of flowering plants of different seasons and color systems. The mean absolute deviation and minimum absolute deviation (400 nm) of spring blooming plants were significantly lower than those of summer-autumn blooming plants, indicating that the spring blooming plants were easier to be perceived, while the floral color diversity of the spring blooming plants was lower. Moreover, comparing the flower color characteristics of white, yellow, red, pink, and blue-purple flower plants, we observed that the floral color diversity was high for yellow flower plants and low for the red ones. The values of mean absolute deviation and minimum absolute deviation indicated that yellow, white and pink flower plants were easy to be perceived, whereas it was hard for bees to perceive red flower plants.
Conclusion The deviation value of floral color spectral marker-points, achromatic contrast against background and chromatic contrast against background could be used as indicators for selecting bees-friendly landscape plants.