ObjectiveThe landscape structure of scenic spots changes constantly with human activities,excessive human disturbance and unreasonable land use layout will affect the sustainable development of scenic spots. Sorting out the dynamic change characteristics of scenic landscape pattern is of great significance for guiding the rational planning of scenic spots and promoting ecological stability.
MethodTaking Mengshan Scenic Spot in Shandong Province of eastern China as the research object, remote sensing images in 2003, 2008, 2013 and 2015 were interpreted under the support of ENVI technology, and quantitative analysis was conducted with the help of Fragstats grid software for landscape pattern index analysis.
ResultBased on the analysis of the landscape pattern index of Mengshan Scenic Spot from 2003 to 2015, the assessment of the landscape status showed that: (1) during the study period, the typical characteristics of scenic spot development in this period are the reduction of woodland and farmland and the expansion of building land. The conversion of woodland to farmland , the conversion of farmland to woodland and the conversion of farmland to building land are the three most important ways for the transfer of scenic landscape type. The conversion areas are 1 760.49, 1 197.27 and 1 497.15 ha, respectively, which are concentrated in the marginal area, marginal area and peripheral area successively. (2) The overall fragmentation degree of the scenic area shows fluctuating changes. Among them, year 2008 is not only the year with the lowest degree of fragmentation in scenic areas, but also the year with the lowest degree of fragmentation in woodland types. (3) In terms of the typical spatial structure, the degree of fragmentation in the three zones of scenic spots is sorted into the marginal area > peripheral area > core area, the degree of fragmentation in the marginal area is high and the ecology is fragile. (4) All types of landscape fragmentation show fluctuating changes, among which the fragmentation of building land is the most significant change.
ConclusionThe degree of fragmentation increases at the end of the study compared with the beginning. Woodland and building land are the key factors affecting the stability of landscape pattern. Especially, the layout of woodland and building land in marginal areas should be paid special attention to. Meanwhile, the degree of fragmentation is not the only factor to determine the development of scenic spot, and should be combined with the comprehensive consideration of the landscape quality.