In order to find the optimum conditions for lacquer wax extraction, a thermal reflux method was used in single factor and orthogonal experiments. Then using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC--MS) analytical method, the primary fatty acids and their contents of lacquer wax from Shaanxi and Jiangxi provinces were investigated. The results indicated that the optimum extraction conditions for lacquer wax were obtained with petroleum ether as solvent, a temperature of 80℃, a solid-liquid ratio of 1∶20 and an extraction time of 60 min, for twice extraction. The main components of the lacquer wax from both Shaanxi and Jiangxi provinces were palmitic acid, oleic acid and octadecanoic acid, which together constituted more than 70% of the wax. As well, tridecanedioic acid, docosanoic acid and eicosanedioic acid were found in the lacquer wax. The content of dibasic acids in lacquer wax from Shaanxi accounted for 8.256% of the lacquer wax and for 14.097% in the Jiangxi wax.