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“留白增绿”背景下北京市栖息生境型城市森林营建策略研究

赵人镜 戈晓宇 李雄

赵人镜, 戈晓宇, 李雄. “留白增绿”背景下北京市栖息生境型城市森林营建策略研究[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2018, 40(10): 102-114. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180187
引用本文: 赵人镜, 戈晓宇, 李雄. “留白增绿”背景下北京市栖息生境型城市森林营建策略研究[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2018, 40(10): 102-114. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180187
Zhao Renjing, Ge Xiaoyu, Li Xiong. Research on habitat-type urban forest construction strategy in Beijing in the background of 'leave blank space and increase green space'[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2018, 40(10): 102-114. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180187
Citation: Zhao Renjing, Ge Xiaoyu, Li Xiong. Research on habitat-type urban forest construction strategy in Beijing in the background of "leave blank space and increase green space"[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2018, 40(10): 102-114. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180187

“留白增绿”背景下北京市栖息生境型城市森林营建策略研究

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180187
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 31670704

北京市共建项目专项 2015BLUREE01

详细信息
    作者简介:

    赵人镜。主要研究方向:风景园林规划设计与理论研究。Email:154218486@qq.com  地址:100083北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学园林学院

    责任作者:

    李雄,教授,博士生导师。主要研究方向:风景园林规划设计与理论研究。Email:bearlixiong@sina.com  地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S731.2

Research on habitat-type urban forest construction strategy in Beijing in the background of "leave blank space and increase green space"

  • 摘要: 目的《北京城市总体规划(2016年—2035年)》提出“留白增绿”,让森林进入城市。城市森林具有多种功能,是城市生态系统的重要组成部分。本研究旨在探索城市森林功能类型及栖息生境型城市森林营建策略,以期实现特定城市背景下城市森林功能的拓展,使城市森林成为解决不同城市问题的绿色空间,促进城市生态系统的可持续发展。方法本文在对大量文献进行研究的基础上,依据不同尺度城市森林所能发挥的主导功能、周边用地类型、城市总体规划定位三大因素对城市森林功能类型进行论述,并对栖息生境型城市森林营建策略进行研究。结果提出生态型、生活型、生产型3个一级分类,包括栖息生境型、环境调节型、景观游憩型、科普教育型、康养服务型、设施防护型、经济生产型共7个二级分类。城市化进程造成了城市生物多样性锐减,重视和保护生物多样性成为城市发展的重要环节。本研究选择以提高生物多样性为主要目标的栖息生境型城市森林为研究对象,提出目标物种选择、林地生境、水体生境营建策略,并以横街子城市森林为例,对营建策略进行实践。结论对城市森林功能类型进行论述,能够为城市森林营建提供目标指引。对栖息生境型城市森林进行营建策略研究可以为未来城市森林建设提供参考依据。

     

  • 图  1  “留白增绿”不同尺度地块的数量

    Figure  1.  Classification of different scales of "leave blank apace and increase green space"

    图  2  “留白增绿”背景下的城市森林功能类型划分

    Figure  2.  Urban forest function type division under the background of "leave blank space and increase green space"

    图  3  水系形态示意图

    Figure  3.  Schematic of water system

    图  4  岛屿周长面积比与岛屿面积关系

    此图改绘自参考文献[38]。

    Figure  4.  Relationship between the ratio of circumference to area of an island with island area

    This figure is redrawn from reference[38].

    图  5  水体深度示意图

    Figure  5.  Schematic diagram of water depth

    图  6  不同水生植物覆盖度示意图

    Figure  6.  Schematic representation of aquatic plants with different coverage

    图  7  驳岸示意图

    Figure  7.  Schematic diagram of the revetment

    图  8  研究对象区位

    Figure  8.  Location of the research object

    图  9  总平面图

    Figure  9.  Design plan

    图  10  不同郁闭度群落分布示意图

    Figure  10.  Schematic diagram of the distribution of plant communities with different canopy closure

    图  11  常绿及落叶植物分布示意图

    Figure  11.  Schematic representation of evergreen and deciduous plant distribution

    图  12  水体生境示意图

    Figure  12.  Schematic representation of evergreen and deciduous plants distribution

    表  1  不同郁闭度二级生境类型

    Table  1.   Secondary habitat types with different canopy closure

    一级类型
    Primary classification
    二级类型
    Secondary classification
    说明
    Description
    乔木林
    Tree forest
    疏林草地
    Sparse forest-grass land
    无灌木或灌木覆盖度小于15%,乔木覆盖度在30%~70%之间
    The shrub-free or shrub coverage is less than 15%, and the tree coverage is between 30% and 70%
    密林草地
    Jungle forest-grass land
    无灌木或者灌木覆盖度小于15%,乔木覆盖度在70%~90%之间
    The shrub-free or shrub coverage is less than 15%, and the tree coverage is between 70% and 90%
    疏林灌丛
    Sparse forest-shrubbery
    灌木覆盖度在30%~70%之间,乔木覆盖度在30%~70%之间
    Shrub coverage is between 30% and 70%, and the tree coverage is between 30% and 70%
    密林灌丛
    Jungle forest-shrubbery
    灌木覆盖度在30%~70%之间,乔木覆盖度在70%~90%之间
    Shrub coverage is between 30% and 70%, and the tree coverage is between 70% and 90%
    疏林灌草地
    Sparse forest-shrubbery-grass land
    灌木覆盖度在15%~30%之间,乔木覆盖度在30%~70%之间
    Shrub coverage is between 15% and 30%,and the tree coverage is between 30% and 70%
    密林灌草地
    Jungle forest-shrubbery-grass land
    灌木覆盖度在15%~30%之间,乔木覆盖度在70%~90%之间
    Shrub coverage is between 15% and 30%, and the tree coverage is between 70% and 90%
    复层林
    Multiple layer forest
    灌木覆盖度大于15%,乔木覆盖度大于30%
    Shrub coverage is more than 15% and tree coverage is more than 30%
    灌丛
    Shrubbery
    矮灌丛
    Short shrubbery
    灌丛高度小于1 m,灌木覆盖度大于30%,乔木覆盖度小于30%
    Shrub height is less than 1 m, coverage is more than 30%, and tree coverage is less than 30%
    灌丛
    Shrubbery
    灌丛高度大于1 m,独干灌木高度小于1.5 m,灌木覆盖度大于30%,乔木覆盖度小于30%
    The shrub higher than 1 m, the height of branch independent plant is less than 1.5 m, the shrub coverage is more than 30%, and the tree coverage is less than 30%
    草地Lawn 草地
    Lawn
    以草本植物为主,木本植物覆盖度小于15%
    Mainly herbaceous, woody plant coverage is less than 15%
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  林地鸟类生境营造

    Table  2.   Woodland bird habitat construction conditions

    林地类型
    Forest land type
    鸟的种类
    Species of birds
    生境需求
    Habitat requirement
    针叶林
    Coniferous forest
    金翅雀Carduelis sinica、斑鸫Turdus eunomus 保证上层林木有一定盖度且生境下层较开敞, 草本植物丰富[49]
    Ensure that the upper trees have a certain degree of coverage and the lower layer of the habitat is open with rich herbs[49]
    红嘴蓝鹊Urocissa erythroryncha 连续常绿林面积至少4 hm2[31]
    Continuous evergreen forest area is of at least 4 ha[31]
    阔叶林
    Broadleaved forest habitat
    燕雀Fringilla montifringilla 拾取草籽为食,喜上层乔木主干清晰,下层灌木稀疏的群落[47]
    Picking up grass seeds for food, like the environment with clear branches of upper trees and lower sparse shrub community[47]
    白头鹎Pycnonotus sinensis、丝光椋鸟Sturnus sericeus 喜主干清晰下层开阔的阔叶乔木群落,灌木下层稀疏的植物或体量小的球形灌木[49]。距地面大多2~3 m筑巢,亦有筑在6~6.5 m高大乔木上[30]
    Like the environment with clear branches and broadleaved trees, lower sparse shrub community or small spherical shrub[49]. Nesting on places 2-3 m higher than the ground, and nesting on 6-6.5 m tall trees[30]
    四声杜鹃Cuculus micropterus、大杜鹃Cuculus canorus 喜乔木主干通直,下层相对开阔,以阔叶林为主。搭配树龄较长的针叶树。喜既不影响飞行又能覆盖地表的丰富小灌木及草本空间[47]
    Like trees with straight trunk, the lower layer is relatively open, mainly broadleaved forest. Pair with longer-aged conifers. Like rich shrubs and herbaceous spaces cover the surface but do not affect flight activities[47]
    黄眉柳莺Phylloscopus inornatus 喜株型挺拔整齐的高大乔木, 偏好落叶林和常绿林,如落叶密林草地和常绿密林灌丛草地[31]
    Like straight and neat trees, preference deciduous forest and evergreen forest, such as deciduous jungle grassland and evergreen jungle shrub grassland[31]
    灌丛Shrub 黄喉鹀Emberiza elegans、红喉姬鹟Ficedula parva、褐柳莺Phylloscopus fuscatus 喜中等灌木和低矮的自然地被[30],常活动在林缘以及溪流沿岸的疏林与灌丛[48]
    Like medium shrubs and low herbs[30], of ten active in forests and shrubs along the forest margins and streamlined[48]
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  水体鸟类生境营造

    Table  3.   Aquatic habitat construction conditions

    类别
    Category

    Family

    Species
    生境需求
    Habitat requirement
    水鸟
    Water birds
    鹭科
    Ardeidae
    大白鹭
    Ardea alba
    喜在近水域或水中岛屿高树上营巢[49]。水域内需沉水、挺水植物覆盖率40%~60%之间,高于1 m的植物占60%左右,木本植物、挺水植物4 m以内越高越好。陆地植物7 m内越高越适宜[30]
    Like to nest on high trees in the water or on the island[49].The coverage of aquatic plants in the waters is between 40% and 60%, plants above 1 m is about 60%. Woody plants and aquatic plants should be within 4 m and plants on land should within 7 m, the higher, the better [30]
    水鸟
    Water birds
    鹭科
    Ardeidae
    草鹭
    Ardea purpurea
    喜栖息在水边灌丛或芦苇(Phragmites communis)沼泽[49]。水域内需沉水、挺水植物覆盖率40%~60%之间,高于1 m的植物占60%左右,木本植物、挺水植物4 m以内越高越好。陆地植物7 m内越高越适宜[30]
    Like to inhabit in the shrubs or the reeds.The coverage of aquatic plants in the waters is between 40% and 60%, plants above 1m is about 60%. Woody plants and aquatic plants should be within 4 m and plants on land should within 7 m, the higher, the better [30]
    水鸟
    Water birds
    鹭科
    Ardeidae
    苍鹭
    Ardea cinerea
    喜栖息于有大片芦苇和水生植物的浅水域[49]。水域内需沉水、挺水植物覆盖率40%~60%之间,高于1 m的植物占60%左右,木本植物、挺水植物4 m以内越高越好。陆地植物7 m内越高越适宜[30]
    Like to inhabit in shallow waters with large reeds and aquatic plants.The coverage of aquatic plants in the waters is between 40% and 60%, plants above 1 m is about 60%. Woody plants and aquatic plants should be within 4m and plants on land should within 7 m, the higher, the better [30]
    水鸟
    Water birds
    鸭科
    Anatidae
    黑水鸡
    Gallinula chloropus
    栖息于富有树木、芦苇和水生挺水植物遮蔽的淡水水域,不喜欢很开阔的场所[49]。栖息地水域植被覆盖率50%~75%为宜,其中30%~50%灌木,40%~70%挺水植物,0%~10%乔木,以及25%水面,水深0.9 m以内水域中宜有倒伏树干[30]
    Inhabit in freshwater covered with trees, reeds and aquatic plants, do not like very open space[49]. The vegetation coverage 50%-75%, with 30%-50% shrubs, 40%-70% aquatic plants, 0%-10% trees, and 25% water surface. There should be fallen tree trunks in the water within 0.9 m[30]
    水鸟
    Water birds
    鸭科
    Anatidae
    鸳鸯
    Aix galericulata
    喜在水深不超过2 m的浅水区觅食,水域植被覆盖率50%~75%为宜,近水区域结合少量乔灌,以木本上层结构为主[30]
    Like to eat in shallow waters with a water depth no more than 2 m, vegetation coverage in the waters should is 50%-75%, near-water area combined with a small amount of trees and shrubs, mainly based on woody superstructure[30]
    水鸟
    Water birds
    鸭科
    Anatidae
    小鸊鷉Tachybaptus ruficollis 在芦苇、香蒲(Typha orientalis Presl)、灯芯草(Juncus effusus L.)等挺水植被区域活动,挺水植物占整个水面比例小于30%,栖息地生态岛上高度0.6~10 m的植被覆盖率50%以上为宜,距离人类活动不宜小于400 m[30]
    Activities in the watery vegetation areas such as reeds, cattails, and rushes. Vegetation coverage is less than 30%. The coverage of trees with a height of 0.6-10 m on the habitat ecological island is more than 50%. Human activities should be outside the distance of 400 m[30]
    近水鸟
    Near- water birds
    翠鸟科
    Alcedinidae
    普通翠鸟Alcedo atthis 栖息于有灌丛或疏林、水清澈而缓流的小河、溪涧、湖泊以及灌溉渠等水域[49]。岸际15 m以内浮水植物、原木、岩石等阻碍越少越好[30]
    Inhabited in rivers, streams, lakes and irrigation canals with shrubs or sparse forests, clear waters and slow streams[49]. The less obstructions such as floating plants, logs and rocks within 15 m of the coast, the better[30]
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2018-05-31
  • 修回日期:  2018-09-14
  • 刊出日期:  2018-10-01

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