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妙峰山油松林分结构与地表潜在火行为相关性分析

李连强 牛树奎 陶长森 陈羚 陈锋

李连强, 牛树奎, 陶长森, 陈羚, 陈锋. 妙峰山油松林分结构与地表潜在火行为相关性分析[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2019, 41(1): 73-81. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180304
引用本文: 李连强, 牛树奎, 陶长森, 陈羚, 陈锋. 妙峰山油松林分结构与地表潜在火行为相关性分析[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2019, 41(1): 73-81. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180304
Li Lianqiang, Niu Shukui, Tao Changsen, Chen Ling, Chen Feng. Correlations between stand structure and surface potential fire behavior of Pinus tabuliformis forests in Miaofeng Mountain of Beijing[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2019, 41(1): 73-81. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180304
Citation: Li Lianqiang, Niu Shukui, Tao Changsen, Chen Ling, Chen Feng. Correlations between stand structure and surface potential fire behavior of Pinus tabuliformis forests in Miaofeng Mountain of Beijing[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2019, 41(1): 73-81. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180304

妙峰山油松林分结构与地表潜在火行为相关性分析

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180304
基金项目: 

国家林业局林业科技推广项目 2015-04

详细信息
    作者简介:

    李连强。主要研究方向:生态规划与管理。Email:1164629835@qq.com  地址:100083北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学林学院

    责任作者:

    牛树奎,教授,博士生导师。主要研究方向:林火生态规划与管理。Email: niushukui@163.com  地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S762.1

Correlations between stand structure and surface potential fire behavior of Pinus tabuliformis forests in Miaofeng Mountain of Beijing

  • 摘要: 目的林分结构与火行为密切相关,调整林分结构可以有效降低火行为,对森林防火工作有指导意义。分析北京妙峰山油松林分结构与地表潜在火行为的相关性,探究林分结构指数对地表火行为的影响,为妙峰山油松林可燃物管理提供科学依据。方法本文以妙峰山地形相近、结构差异较大的油松林为研究对象,调查和测定样地中的乔木、灌木、草本和枯枝落叶数据,利用Rothermel模型计算油松林潜在火行为指标,采用相关性分析、回归分析及方差分解法,研究油松林地表潜在火行为与林分结构的关系。结果(1) 油松林地表潜在火蔓延速度(R)、火强度(I)、单位面积热量(HPA)取值范围分别在2~6m/min、300~1400kW/m、4000~5500kJ/m2之间。(2)潜在火行为与结构指数相关性:乔木层RI与平均树高呈显著正相关,与平均枝下高、平均冠幅、冠长率相关性较小。灌木层RI与灌木密度、株数呈显著负相关,而与高度相关性较小;HPA与灌木高度呈显著正相关。灌木密度、株数过大或过小都有利于增强地表潜在火行为,反而灌木量适中时地表潜在火行为较低。草本枯枝落叶层I与床层高度、草本盖度呈极显著正相关,紧密度与logI呈显著正相关与HPA呈极显著正相关。(3)对地表潜在火行为的解释力,草本枯枝落叶层结构指数>灌木层结构指数>乔木层结构指数,草本枯枝落叶层和灌木层结构指数的交互作用贡献率大于乔木层与草本枯枝落叶层、灌木层结构指数的交互作用。结论妙峰山油松林普遍处于低强度地表火,可引发中强度地表火,有引发高强度地表火的可能。地表潜在火行为与乔木层、草本枯枝落叶层结构呈正相关,而与灌木层结构呈负相关;其中,乔木层的树高,灌木层的密度、株数、盖度,草本枯枝落叶层的草本盖度、床层高度、紧密度对地表潜在火行为产生显著影响,各个层次的影响由大到小分别为草本枯枝落叶层>灌木层>乔木层。整体来看,地表潜在火行为大小主要受到地上可燃物的影响尤其是草本枯枝落叶层,而乔木层的影响相对较小。

     

  • 图  1  油松林地表潜在火行为特征

    Figure  1.  Characteristics of potential surface fire behavior in Pinus tabuliformis forest

    图  2  乔木层林分结构与表地潜在火行为的关系

    Figure  2.  Relationship between stand structure and surface fire behavior in arbor layer

    图  3  灌木层林分结构与地表潜在火行为的关系

    Figure  3.  Relationship between stand structure and surface potential fire behavior in shrub layer

    图  4  草本和凋落物层林分结构与地表潜在火行为的关系

    Figure  4.  Relationship between stand structure and surface potential fire behavior in herb and fuel layer

    图  5  乔木、灌木和草本枯枝落叶层对地表潜在火行为影响的解释力

    Figure  5.  Interpretation of the effects of tree, shrub, herb and fuel on potential fire behavior on the surface

    表  1  可燃物种类划分标准

    Table  1.   Classification criteria for fuel

    类别Category 灌木层Shrub layer 草本层Herbal layer 枯枝落叶层Litter layer 规格Specification
    叶Leaf 鲜草Fresh grass
    活可燃物Living combustible 小枝Small branch 直径Diameter < 1cm
    大枝Big branch 直径Diameter≥1cm
    枯草Withered grass
    1时滞枯枝Dead branch 1hr 直径Diameter < 0.6cm
    枯死可燃物Dead combustible 10时滞枯枝Dead branch 10hr 0.6~2.5cm
    100时滞枯枝Dead branch 100hr 2.5~7.5cm
    枯叶Withered leaf 落叶层Leaf litter layer
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  油松林地表潜在火行为与林分结构的相关系数

    Table  2.   Correlation coefficients between surface fire behavior and stand structure of Pinus tabuliformis

    可燃物层Combustible layer 相关性系数Correlation coefficient
    R I HPA
          乔木层Tree layer 平均枝下高Average height of the lowest branches (Ht) 0.220 0.218 0.139
    平均冠幅Average crown width (Ct) -0.038 -0.042 0.168
    冠长率Rate of crown length (TCRt) 0.136 0.151 -0.101
    平均胸径Average DBH (Dg) 0.134 0.164 0.281
    平均树高Average tree height (H) 0.391* 0.399* 0.075
    地表层
    Surface layer
    灌木层Shrub layer 灌层密度Shrub density (BDs) -0.427** -0.361* 0.219
    平均盖度Average coverage (Cs) -0.241 -0.217 -0.065
    平均高度Average height (Hs) 0.013 0.150 0.360*
    株数Shrub number (N) -0.372* -0.346* -0.044
    草本枯枝落叶层
    Herb and fuel litter layer
    床层高度Bed height (h) 0.539** 0.519** -0.034
    紧密度Tightness (β) 0.290 0.391* 0.482**
    平均盖度Average coverage (Ch) 0.523** 0.524** -0.289
    注:**表示在P < 0.01水平上极显著相关,*表示在P < 0.05水平上显著相关。Notes: ** means significant correlation at P < 0.01 level (bilateral), * means significant correlation at P < 0.05 level (bilateral).
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2018-09-28
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