We took a virgin forest, a spruce-fir forest, a polar-birch secondary forest, 53- and 39- year-old artificial larch in the Jingouling Forest Farm in Changbai Mountain, northeastern China, as study objects, and took grassland as the control. Litter extant quantity, water-storage capacity of litter, soil physical property and water-storage capacity of soil of different forest types were analyzed. Results showed that 1) the litter extant quantity of various forest types ranged from 28.96 to 56.42 t/hm2 (maximum in the virgin forest, minimum in the polar-birch secondary forest); 2) the sequence of maximum water-storage of litter is virgin forest＞polar-birch secondary forest＞spruce-fir forest＞53-year-old artificial larch＞39-year-old artificial larch＞grassland; 3) soil bulk density increases with the soil depth increasing gradually, and the effect of the power function fitting is best. The bulk density of A1 layer in different forest soil are less than 1.00 g/cm3, obviously less than that of grassland; 4) the total porosity and capillary porosity gradually decrease with soil depth increasing; 5) natural moisture content gradually decreases with the soil depth increasing and the effect of the power function fitting is best; 6) the sequence of maximal soil water-storage and capillary water-storage are virgin forest＞spruce-fir forest＞polar-birch secondary forest＞39-year-old artificial larch＞53-year-old artificial larch＞grassland, and non-capillary water-storage change is polar-birch secondary forest＞spruce-fir forest＞39-year-old artificial larch＞virgin forest＞53-year-old artificial larch＞grassland. In short, the water conservation of different forest types is polar-birch secondary forest＞spruce-fir forest＞virgin forest＞39-year-old artificial larch＞53-year-old artificial larch＞grassland.