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间伐强度对落叶松次生林冠层结构和林内光环境的影响

管惠文 董希斌

管惠文, 董希斌. 间伐强度对落叶松次生林冠层结构和林内光环境的影响[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2018, 40(10): 11-23. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180021
引用本文: 管惠文, 董希斌. 间伐强度对落叶松次生林冠层结构和林内光环境的影响[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2018, 40(10): 11-23. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180021
Guan Huiwen, Dong Xibin. Influence of thinning intensity on canopy structure and light environment inside Larix gmelinii secondary forest[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2018, 40(10): 11-23. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180021
Citation: Guan Huiwen, Dong Xibin. Influence of thinning intensity on canopy structure and light environment inside Larix gmelinii secondary forest[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2018, 40(10): 11-23. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180021

间伐强度对落叶松次生林冠层结构和林内光环境的影响

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180021
基金项目: 

国家重点研发计划项目 2017YFC0504103

中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金项目 2572017AB20

详细信息
    作者简介:

    管惠文,博士生。主要研究方向:森林作业与环境。Email: 861623036@qq.com 地址:150040 黑龙江省哈尔滨市香坊区和兴路26号东北林业大学工程技术学院

    责任作者:

    董希斌,教授,博士生导师。主要研究方向:森林作业与环境。Email: xibindong@163.com 地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S753.51

Influence of thinning intensity on canopy structure and light environment inside Larix gmelinii secondary forest

  • 摘要: 目的为改善林分结构和促进林木生长,对大兴安岭落叶松次生林进行不同强度的抚育间伐,研究落叶松冠层结构和光合特性指标的相关关系,进而探讨改善林内光环境特征的最佳间伐强度。方法设置间伐强度为9.43%、16.75%、29.00%、40.01%、53.09%、67.25%的实验样地和未进行间伐作业的对照样地。对不同样地落叶松冠层结构参数和光合特征参数指标值间的差异进行描述性统计,运用相关系数法确定不同指标间的相关关系进而剔除有显著正相关的部分指标,同时运用灰色关联法对各个样地的光环境特征进行综合评价。其中冠层结构选取林隙分数、开度、叶面积指数、叶倾角、直接定点因子、间接定点因子、总定点因子、冠上直接辐射、冠上间接辐射、冠上总辐射、冠下直接辐射、冠下间接辐射、冠下总辐射13项指标,光合特征参数选取蒸腾速率、光合速率、CO2参考值、叶片表面P.A.R、叶片温度、胞间CO2浓度、水蒸气气孔导度7项指标。结果各样地林隙分数表现为随间伐强度的增加先减少后增加,开度、直接定点因子、总定点因子与之变化趋势相同,各项指标值均在间伐强度为29.00%的样地中最小;叶面积指数在间伐强度为29.00%时达到最大值;不同间伐强度样地的冠上辐射通量无显著差异性;冠下直接辐射通量和冠下总辐射通量随间伐强度的增加先减少后增加。随着间伐强度的增加,落叶松的蒸腾速率、光合速率、水蒸气气孔导度均呈现先增加后减少的趋势,叶片表面P.A.R、叶片温度先增加后趋于稳定,间伐增加了林地内的CO2浓度;胞间CO2浓度随着间伐强度的增加先减小再增加后减小。林隙分数与开度、直接定点因子、总定点因子、冠下直接辐射、冠下总辐射呈显著正相关,与叶面积指数呈显著负相关;蒸腾速率、光合速率、水蒸气气孔导度之间呈显著正相关性。剔除相关性极强的指标后,冠层结构的林隙分数与光合速率呈显著负相关,叶面积指数与光合速率呈显著正相关。运用灰色关联综合评判林地内的光环境特征,关联度表现为间伐强度29.00%(0.823)>40.01%(0.794)>53.09%(0.739)>0%(0.724)>67.25%(0.713)>16.75%(0.701)>9.43%(0.673)。结论落叶松冠层结构与光合特征指标间存在相关性,落叶松冠层的透光率对于光合速率有明显的影响。结合二者综合评价不同间伐强度下的林地光环境特征,抚育间伐强度为29.00%、40.01%的落叶松天然次生林林地的林内光环境特征较好,说明29.00%~40.01%的中等强度间伐有利于林内光环境的改善。

     

  • 图  1  林隙分数与光合速率拟合曲线

    Figure  1.  Fitting curve of gap fraction and photosynthetic rate

    图  2  叶面积指数与光合速率拟合曲线

    Figure  2.  Fitting curve of leaf area index and photosynthetic rate

    表  1  样地概况

    Table  1.   General information of sample plots

    样地编号
    Sample No.
    采伐强度
    Cutting strength/%
    海拔
    Elevation/m
    伐前Before cutting 伐后After cutting 平均树高
    Average tree height/m
    平均胸径
    Average DBH/cm
    树种组成
    Tree species composition
    蓄积量/
    (m3·hm-2)Stock volume/
    (m3·ha-1)
    林分密度/
    (株·hm-2)Stand density/
    (tree·ha-1)
    郁闭度
    Coverage/%
    蓄积量/
    (m3·hm-2)Stock volume/
    (m3·ha-1)
    林分密度/
    (株·hm-2)Stand density/
    (tree·ha-1)
    郁闭度
    Coverage/%
    1 0 594 3L6B1Z 105.56 2175 65 105.56 2175 65 12.37 11.36
    2 9.43 635 7L3B 71.84 1659 65 65.06 1414 55 10.39 10.63
    3 16.75 571 10L 111.53 2175 70 92.85 1712 50 12.56 12.03
    4 29.00 670 10L 123.11 1512 70 87.41 1010 50 10.91 9.89
    5 40.01 587 8L2B 146.39 2850 65 87.82 1950 45 11.38 11.40
    6 53.09 554 9L1B 163.73 2000 65 76.81 1123 40 10.91 9.89
    7 67.25 544 8L2B 179.74 2150 70 58.86 1200 40 12.96 12.67
    注:L为落叶松,B为白桦,Z为樟子松; 在树种比例中,比例小于0.5的树种忽略不计。Notes: L for Larix gmelinii, B for Betula platyphylla, Z for Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica; in the proportion of tree species, trees with a ratio of less than 0.5 are neglected.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  冠层结构参数

    Table  2.   Canopy structural parameters

    样地编号
    Sample No.
    林隙分数
    Gap fraction/%
    开度
    Canopy opening/%
    叶面积指数
    Leaf area index
    叶倾角
    Leaf inclination/(°)
    定点因子Fixed-point factor 辐射通量Radiation flux/(mol·m-2·d-1)
    直接Direct 间接Indirect 总体Total 冠上On the crown 冠下Under the crown
    直射Direct 散射Scattering 总体Total 直射Direct 散射Scattering 总体Total
    1 6.937±1.01a 7.396±1.01ab 5.153±0.25a 14.76±0.73a 0.071±0.010a 0.132±0.021a 0.169±0.019a 29.87±0.36a 4.164±0.13a 34.03±0.24a 1.392±0.368ac 0.419±0.013a 1.627±0.134a
    2 5.525±1.19ab 5.915±0.85bc 5.629±0.31b 14.76±0.49a 0.068±0.003ab 0.124±0.037a 0.157±0.029a 29.89±0.29a 4.162±0.18a 34.05±0.27a 1.278±0.032ac 0.387±0.016a 1.492±0.042b
    3 4.107±1.11b 4.628±0.77c 6.716±0.24c 15.47±0.92a 0.042±0.009c 0.099±0.019ab 0.105±0.027bc 29.88±0.41a 4.165±0.24a 34.05±0.36a 0.965±0.029b 0.303±0.026b 1.113±0.027c
    4 3.962±1.22b 4.397±1.01c 6.814±0.41c 14.76±0.43a 0.041±0.013c 0.117±0.016a 0.091±0.015c 29.88±0.29a 4.162±0.19a 34.04±0.28a 0.916±0.010b 0.422±0.016a 1.092±0.014c
    5 5.293±1.25ab 5.614±0.91bc 5.927±0.14b 14.76±0.39a 0.053±0.006bc 0.102±0.030ab 0.139±0.031ab 29.73±0.38a 4.164±0.21a 33.89±0.34a 1.129±0.022bc 0.324±0.032b 1.289±0.033d
    6 5.418±1.28ab 5.819±0.80bc 5.891±0.27b 13.97±0.36a 0.061±0.010ab 0.148±0.043a 0.158±0.038a 29.85±0.27a 4.161±0.23a 34.01±0.25a 1.156±0.078bc 0.517±0.030c 1.371±0.031d
    7 7.261±1.43a 7.635±1.16a 5.017±0.17a 14.29±0.42a 0.072±0.007a 0.060±0.011b 0.173±0.014a 29.86±0.40a 4.139±0.41a 34.00±0.39a 1.491±0.034a 0.223±0.018d 1.623±0.037a
    注:表中数字为“平均值±标准差”。同列不同字母表示差异显著(P < 0.05)。下同。Notes: the number in the table is “average ± standard deviation”. different letters in each column indicate significant difference (P<0.05). The same below.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  冠层结构参数相关性

    Table  3.   Correlation of canopy structural parameters

    冠层结构参数
    Canopy structure parameter
    林隙分数
    Gap fraction
    开度
    Canopy opening
    叶面积指数
    Leaf area index
    叶倾角
    Leaf inclina-tion
    直接定点因子
    Direct fixed-point factor
    间接定点因子
    Indirect fixed-point factor
    总定点因子
    Total fixed-point factor
    冠上直接辐射
    Direct radiation on the crown
    冠上间接辐射
    Indirect radiation on the crown
    冠上总辐射
    Total radiation on the crown
    冠下直接辐射
    Direct radiation under the crown
    冠下间接辐射
    Indirect radiation under the crown
    冠下总辐射
    Total radiation under the canopy
    林隙分数Gap fraction 1
    开度Canopy opening 0.999** 1
    叶面积指数Leaf area index -0.985** -0.979** 1
    叶倾角Leaf inclination -0.497 -0.475 0.508 1
    直接定点因子Direct fixed-point factor 0.931** 0.928** -0.971** -0.546 1
    间接定点因子Indirect fixed-point factor -0.247 -0.242 0.177 -0.168 -0.030 1
    总定点因子Total fixed-point factor 0.922** 0.915** -0.962** -0.599 0.970** -0.011 1
    冠上直接辐射Direct radiation on the crown -0.038 -0.003 0.062 0.113 0.093 0.141 -0.078 1
    冠上间接辐射Indirect radiation on the crown -0.607 -0.600 0.546 0.482 -0.485 0.726 -0.452 -0.104 1
    冠上总辐射Total radiation on the crown -0.139 -0.103 0.153 0.193 0.013 0.262 -0.154 0.986** 0.063 1
    冠下直接辐射Direct radiation under the crown 0.981** 0.980** -0.989** -0.463 0.965** -0.266 0.934** 0.042 -0.624 -0.062 1
    冠下间接辐射Indirect radiation under the crown -0.244 -0.243 0.197 -0.351 -0.052 0.961** -0.036 0.165 0.577 0.262 -0.280 1
    冠下总辐射Total radiation under the canopy 0.967** 0.967** -0.987** -0.485 0.989** -0.099 0.953** 0.084 -0.508 -2.7×10-5 0.985** -0.125 1
    注:**表示相关性显著(P < 0.01)。Note:** represents significant correlation at P < 0.01 level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  落叶松光合参数

    Table  4.   Vegetation photosynthetic parameters

    样地编号
    Sample No.
    蒸腾速率
    Transpiration rate/(mmol·m-2·s-1)
    光合速率
    Photosynthetic rate/(μmol·m-2·s-1)
    CO2参考值
    CO2 reference value/
    (μmol·mol-1)
    叶片表面
    P.A.Rleaf surface P.A.R/
    (μmol·m-2·s-1)
    叶片温度
    Leaf temperature/℃
    胞间CO2浓度
    Intercellular CO2 concentration/
    (μmol·mol-1)
    水蒸气气孔导度
    Stomatal conductance/
    (mmol·m-2·s-1)
    1 0.641±0.12a 1.743±0.22a 389.4±37.68a 425.9±41.64a 21.24±3.14a 395±31.83a 0.018±0.004a
    2 0.742±0.17a 1.872±0.36ab 401.7±41.40a 486.2±39.21a 23.79±4.17a 353.7±28.40ab 0.022±0.008a
    3 1.274±0.21bc 2.318±0.13b 428.5±52.12ab 579.2±76.01a 27.26±3.37ab 318.4±32.58b 0.031±0.003ab
    4 2.268±0.41d 2.729±0.35c 432.7±42.59ab 1236.7±113.37b 30.39±2.69b 375.4±23.42ab 0.046±0.006c
    5 1.635±0.32c 2.106±0.21ab 496.6±49.27b 1247.5±125.29b 37.13±4.25c 391.3±29.14a 0.035±0.007b
    6 1.286±0.19bc 1.887±0.13ab 432.7±38.28ab 1124.5±162.63b 41.78±3.68c 317.1±40.63bc 0.029±0.008ab
    7 0.992±0.12ab 1.759±0.24a 396.4±39.16a 1284.7±182.50b 43.54±4.43c 301.2±27.56c 0.021±0.007a
    注:表中数字为“平均值±标准差”,同列不同字母表示差异显著(P < 0.05)。Notes: the number in the table is “average ± standard deviation”. Different letters in each column indicate significant difference at P<0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  落叶松光合特征参数相关性

    Table  5.   Correlation of vegetation photosynthetic parameters

    光合参数
    Photosynthetic parameter
    蒸腾速率
    Transpiration rate
    光合速率
    Photosynthetic rate
    CO2参考值
    CO2 reference value
    叶片表面P.A.R
    leaf surface P.A.R
    叶片温度
    Leaf temperature
    胞间CO2浓度
    Intercellular CO2 concentration
    水蒸气气孔导度
    Stomatal conductance
    蒸腾速率Transpiration rate 1
    光合速率Photosynthetic rate 0.883** 1
    CO2参考值CO2 reference value 0.629 0.414 1
    叶片表面P.A.R Leaf surface P.A.R 0.662 0.274 0.509 1
    叶片温度Leaf temperature 0.281 -0.120 0.344 0.861* 1
    胞间CO2浓度Intercellular CO2 concentration 0.17 0.195 0.298 -0.176 -0.533 1
    水蒸气气孔导度Stomatal conductance 0.983** 0.929** 0.642 0.534 0.152 0.218 1
    注:**表示相关性显著(P < 0.01),*表示相关性显著(P < 0.05)。下同。Notes:** represents significant correlation(P < 0.01),* represents significant correlation(P < 0.05). The same below.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  冠层与光合参数相关关系

    Table  6.   Correlation of canopy and vegetation photosynthetic parameters

    参数
    Parameter
    林隙分数
    Gap fraction
    叶面积指数
    Leaf area index
    叶倾角
    Leaf inclination
    间接定点因子
    Indirect fixed-point factor
    冠上总辐射
    Total radiation on the crown
    光合速率
    Photosynthetic rate
    CO2参考值
    CO2 reference value
    叶片表面P.A.R
    Leaf surface P.A.R
    胞间CO2浓度
    Intercellular CO2 concentration
    林隙分数Gap fraction 1
    叶面积指数Leaf area index -0.985** 1
    叶倾角Leaf inclination -0.497 0.508 1
    间接定点因子Indirect fixed-point factor -0.247 0.177 -0.168 1
    冠上总辐射Total radiation on the crown -0.139 0.153 0.193 0.262 1
    光合速率Photosynthetic rate -0.875** 0.919** 0.459 0.006 0.108 1
    CO2参考值CO2 reference value -0.490 0.462 0.099 0.008 -0.790 0.414 1
    叶片表面P.A.R Leaf surface P.A.R -0.059 0.110 -0.526 -0.357 -0.566 0.274 0.509 1
    胞间CO2浓度Intercellular CO2 concentration -0.076 0.046 0.248 0.370 -0.264 0.195 0.299 -0.176 1
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  林地光环境各指标值

    Table  7.   Index values of woodland light environment

    样地编号
    Sample No.
    林隙分数
    Gap fraction/%
    叶面积指数
    Leaf area index
    叶倾角Leaf
    inclination/
    (°)
    间接定点因子
    Indirect fixed-point factor
    冠上总辐射
    Total radiation on the crown/
    (mol·m-2·d-1)
    光合速率
    Photosynthetic rate/(μmol·m-2·s-1)
    CO2参考值
    CO2 reference value/(μmol·mol-1)
    叶片表面P.A.R
    Leaf surface P.A.R/
    (μmol·m-2·s-1)
    胞间CO2浓度
    Intercellular CO2 concentration/
    (μmol·mol-1)
    1 6.937 5.153 14.76 0.132 34.034 1.743 389.4 425.9 395.0
    2 5.525 5.629 14.76 0.124 34.052 1.872 401.7 486.2 353.7
    3 4.107 6.716 15.47 0.099 34.045 2.318 428.5 579.2 318.4
    4 3.962 6.814 14.76 0.117 34.042 2.729 432.7 1236.7 375.4
    5 5.293 5.927 14.76 0.102 33.894 2.106 496.6 1247.5 391.3
    6 5.418 5.891 13.97 0.148 34.011 1.887 432.7 1124.5 317.1
    7 7.261 5.017 14.29 0.06 33.999 1.759 396.4 1284.7 301.2
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  8  林地光环境灰色关联评价

    Table  8.   Grey correlation evaluation of woodland light environment

    样地编号Sample No. 关联度Correlation degree
    1 0.724
    2 0.673
    3 0.701
    4 0.823
    5 0.794
    6 0.739
    7 0.713
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2018-01-16
  • 修回日期:  2018-07-05
  • 刊出日期:  2018-10-01

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